Chp. 5 Development and Plasticity of the Brain

24 terms by allabus 

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apoptosis

developmental program by which a neuron kills itself at a certain age unless inhibited from doing so

differentiation

formation of the axon and dendrites that gives a neuron its distinctive shape

fetal alcohol syndrome

condition resulting from prenatal exposure to alcohol and marked by decreased alertness, hyperactivity, varying degrees of mental retardation, motor problems, heart defects, and facial abnormalities

focal hand dystonia

"musician's cramp", a condition in which the touch responses to one finger overlap those of another, leading to clumsiness, fatigue, and involuntary movements

migration

movement of neurons toward their eventual destinations in the brain

myelination

development of a myelin sheath that insulates an axon

nerve growth factor

protein that promotes the survival and growth of axons in the sympathetic nervous system and certain axons in the brain

neurotrophin

chemical that promotes the survival and activity of neurons

proliferation

production of new cells

stem cells

undifferentiated cells that can divide and produce daughter cells that develop more specialized porperties

synaptogenesis

formation of synapses

closed head injury

sharp blow to the head resulting from a fall, an automobile or motorcycle accident, an assault, or other sudden trauma that does not actually puncture the brain

collateral sprout

newly formed branch from an uninjured axon that attaches to a synapse vacated when another axon was destroyed

denervation supersensitivity

increased sensitivity by a postsynaptic cell after removal of an axon that formerly innervated it

diaschisis

decreased activity of surviving neurons after other neurons are damaged

disuse supersensitivity

increased sensitivity by a postsynaptic cell because of decreased input by incoming axons

edema

accumulation of fluids

hemorrhage

rupture of an artery

ischemia

local insufficiency of blood because a blood clot or other obstruction has closed an artery

penumbra

area of endangered cells surrounding an area of primary damage

phantom limb

continuing sensation of an amputated body part

stroke

(cerebrovascular accident) temporary loss of normal blood flow to a brain area

tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)

drug that breaks up blood clots

deafferent

to remove or disable the sensory nerves from a body part

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