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The external manifestation of feeling or emotion which is manifested in facial expression, tone of voice and body language.


Lack of energy


The inability to experience pleasure.


The spending of increased time in sleep, possibly to escape from painful feelings, however the increased sleep is not experienced as restful or refreshing.

Light Therapy

A first-line treatment of seasonal affective disorder in which the patient is exposed to 30 to 45 minutes of exposure daily to 10000 lux light source.

Mood Disorder

A category of disorders characterized by disturbances of mood that range from elation to depression that interfere with normal functioning.

Psychomotor Agitation

Constant involvement in some tension-relieving activity, such as pacing, biting one's nails, smoking, or tapping one's fingers on table top.

Psychomotore Retardation

Extreme slowness of and difficulty in movements that in extreme cases can entail complete inactivity and incontinence.

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

A non-invasive treatment modality that uses MRI-strength magnetic pulses to stimulate focal areas of the cerebral cortex.

Vagus Nerve Stimulation

Origionally used as treatment for epilepsy, a pacemake-like device is implanted surgically into the left chest wall from which a thin, flexible wire is threaded up and wrapped around the vagus nerve on the left side of the neck.

Vegetative Signs of Depression

Significant changes from normal functioning in those activities necessary to support physical life and growth.

Anticonvulsant Drugs

Drugs Commonly used to treat epilepsy, suppress the rapid and excessive firing of neurons and are used as mood stabilizers.

Bipolar 1

Bipolarism in which atleast one episode of mania alternates with major depression.

Bipolar 2

Bipolarism in which hypomanic episodes alternate with major depression.

Clang Associations

The meaningless rhyming of words, often in a forceful manner.


A chronic mood disturbance in which both hypomanic and dysthymic mood swings. Delusions are not present and these mood swings do not warrent hospitalization.

Flight of Ideas

A continuous flow of speech in which the person jumps rapidly from one topic to another. Sometimes the listener can keep up with the changes, at other times it is necessary to listen for themes in the incessant talking. Themes include grandiose and fantasized evaluation of sexual prowess, business ability, artistic talents and so forth.


Exaggerated belief in or claims about one's importance or identity.


An elevated mood with symptoms less severe than those of mania. A person in this state is not experienceing impairment in reality testing nor do they impair function.

Lithium Carbonate

Know as an antimanic drug because it can stabilize the manic phase of a bipolar disorder. When effective, it can modify future manic episodes and will protect against future depressive episodes.


An unstable elevated mood in which delusion, poor judgement, and other signs of impaired reality testing are evident. During a manic episode, patients have marked impairement of functioning.

Mood Stabilizers

Classes of drugs used to treat mood disorders.

Rapid Cycling

Experiencing four or mood episodes in a 12-month period.

Seclusion Protocol

Proper reporting procedure through the chain of command when a patient is to be secluded.

Acute Dystonia

Acute, often painful, sustained contraction of the muscles, usually of the head and neck, which typically occur from 2-5 days after the introduction of antipsychotic medications.

Affective Symptoms

Symptoms involving emotions and their expressions


Regular rhythmic movements, usually of the lower limbs; constant pacing may also be seen; often noticed in people taking antipsychotic medication


The holding, at the same time, of two opposite emotions, attitudes, ideas, or wished toward the same person, situation or object.


A patients inability to realize that he or she is ill; caused by the illness itself.

Associative Looseness

A disturbance of thinking in which ideas shift from one subject to another in an oblique or unrelated manner.

Atypical Antipsychotics

A classification of medications which commonly interact with serotonin as well as dopamine receptors. They are considered the first line of treatment for psychosis.


A state in which thinking is not bound to reality but reflects the private perceptual world of the individual.

Cognitive Symptoms

Abnormalities in how a person thinks.

Command Hallucinations

Voices that direct a person to take action.

Concrete thinking

Thinking grounded in immediate experience rather than abstraction. There is an over emphasis on specific detail as opposed to general and abstract concepts.

Conventional Antipsychotics

The original class of antipsychotic medications, which work by D2 receptor antagonism. They are accompanied by a variety of side effects, specifically EPS.


A false belief held to be true even with evidence to the contrary.


A phenomenon whereby a person experiences a sense of unreality of or estrangement from the self. For example, one may feel that limbs


The false perception by a person that his or her environment has changed. For example, everything seems bigger or smaller.


Repeating of the last words spoken by another; mimicry or imitation of the speech of another person.


Mimicry or imitation of the movements of another person.


A sense perception for which no external stimulus exists.

Ideas of Reference

The false impression that outside events have special meaning for oneself.


An error in the perception of a sensory stimulus.

Negative Symptoms

The absence of something that should be present. Apathy, lack of motivation, anhedonia, poor thought process.


A word that a person makes up that has meaning only for that person; often part of a delusional system.


A state characterized by the presence of intense and strongly defended irrational suspicions. These ideas cannot be corrected by experience and cannot be modified.

Postive Symptoms

The presence of something that is not normally present (hallucinations, delusions, bizarre behavior, paranoia)


A medication induced temporary constellation of symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease, tremor, reduced accessory muscles, impaired gait, and stiffening of muscles.

Reality Testing

A process by which a person is objectively able to evaluate the external world and adequately distinguish it from the internal world.

Recovery Model

Conceptual model of psychiatric illness that stresses hope, living a full and productive life, and eventual recovery.

Stereotyped Behaviors

A motor pattern that originally had meaning to the person but has become mechanical and lacks purpose.

Word Salad

A mixture of words meaningless to the listener and to the speaker as well.

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