1. Twenty-second amendment
passed in 1951, the amendment that limits presidents to two terms of office.
political equivalent of an indictment in criminal law, prescribed by the Constitution. The House of Representatives may impeach the president by a majority vote for "treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors."
the events and scandal surrounding a break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters in 1972 and the subsequent cover-up of White House involvement, leading to the eventual resignation of President Nixon under the threat of impeachment.
4. Twenty-fifth amendment
passed in 1951, this amendment permits the vice president to become acting president if the president's cabinet determines that the president is disabled. The amendment also outlines how a recuperated president can reclaim the job.
a group of presidential advisors not mentioned in the constitution, although every president has had one. Today it is composed of 14 secretaries and the attorney general.
6. National Security Council
an office created in 1947 to coordinate the president's foreign and military policy advisors. Its formal members are the president, vice president, secretary of state, and secretary of defense, and it is managed by the president's national security assistant.
7. Council of Economic Advisors
a three-member body appointed by the president to advice the president on economic policy.
8. Office of Management and Budget
an office that grew out of the Bureau of the Budget, created in 1921, consisting of a handful of political appointees and hundreds of skilled professionals. It performs both managerial and budgetary functions.
constitutional power of the president to send a bill back to Congress with reasons for rejecting it. A two-thirds vote in each house can override it.
10. Pocket veto
veto taking place when Congress adjourns within 10 days of submitting a bill to the president, who simply lets it die by neither signing nor vetoing it.
11. Presidential coattails
these occur when voters cast their ballots for congressional candidates of the president's party because they support the president.
12. War Powers Resolution
a law passed in 1973 in reaction to American fighting in Vietnam and Cambodia that requires presidents to consult with Congress whenever possible prior to using military force and to withdraw forces after 60 days unless Congress declares war or grants an extension.
13. Legislative veto
the ability of Congress to override a presidential decision. Although the War Powers Resolution asserts this authority, there is reason to believe that, if challenged, the Supreme Court would find the legislative veto in violation of the doctrine of separation of powers.
a sudden, unpredictable, and potentially dangerous event requiring the president to play the role of crisis manager.