ANATOMY - SKIN AND BODY MEMBRANES

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Classification of Body Membranes, The Integumentary System (Skin), Development Aspects of Skin and Body Membranes

What are the functions of body membranes?

They cover surfaces, line body cavities, and form protective (and sometimes lubricating) sheets around organs.

What are the two major groups of body membranes?

Epithelial membranes and Connective Tissue membranes.

What do epithelial membranes consist of?

Cutaneous, mucous, and serous membranes.

What do Connective Tissue membranes consist of ?

Connective tissue membranes are represented by the synovial membranes.

What is another name for Epithelial membranes?

Covering and lining membranes.

Why is it misleading and inaccurate to call the cutaneous, mucus, and serous membranes Epithelial membranes?

Although they all do contain an epithelial sheet, it is always combined with an underlying layer of connect tissue. Hence, these membranes are actually simple organs.

What is cutaneous membrane?

The skin.

What is the cutaneous membrane composed of?

Keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium. The underlying dermis is mostly dense (fibrous) connective tissue.

What sets the cutaneous membrane apart from mucus and serous membranes?

It is exposed to air and is a dry membrane

What is mucus membrane composed of?

Epithelium and Loose Connective Tissue called Lamina Propria.

Mucus membranes are composed of epithelium resting on a loose connective tissue membrane called a lamina propria. (Note: most mucosa contain either stratified squamous epithelium, as in the mouth and esophagus, or simple columnar epithelium, as in the rest of the digestive tract.)

Where are mucus membrane located?

Mucus membranes line all body cavities that open to the exterior, such as those of the hollow organs of the respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive tracts.

What are the characteristics of mucus membrane?

All mucus membranes are wet, or moist. They are almost continuously bathed in secretions or, in the case of the urinary mucosae, urine.

This type of membrane lines body cavities that are open to the exterior. Pick one:
a. serous
b. meningeal
c. mucous
d. visceral

c. mucous

The epidermis is composed of _______ tissue. Pick one:
a. muscular
b. nervous
c. connective
d. epithelial

d. epithelial

Sebaceous glands produce oils whereas the _______ glands produce sweat. Pick one:
a. melanine
b. basal
c. sudoriferous
d. None of these answers is correct.

sudoriferous

What are the functions of mucous membranes?

Absorption and secretion.

What is the serous membrane made up of?

A layer of simple squamous epithelium resting on a thin layer of areolar connective tissue.

Where are serous membranes located?

They line body cavities that are closed to the exterior (except the dorsal body cavity and joint cavities.)

What special characteristic makes serous membranes different from cutaneous and mucous membranes?

Serous membranes occur in pairs.

The PARIETAL(parie = wall) layer lines a specific portion of the wall of the ventral body cavity. It folds in on itself to form the VISCERAL layer, which covers the outside of the organs in that cavity.

How are the serous layers separated?

Serous layers are separated by serous fluid, which is secreted by both (parietal and visceral) membranes.

What purpose does serous fluid serve?

Serous fluid allows the organs to slide easily across the cavity walls and one another without friction as they carry out their routine functions.

How are serous membranes named?

By their locations.

The serosa lining the abdominal cavity and covering its organs is the PERITONEUM. In the thorax, serous membranes isolate the lungs and heart from one another. The membrane surrounding the lungs is the PLEURA, that around the heart is the PERICARDIUM.

What are Synovial membranes composed of?

Soft areolar connective tissue and they contain no epithelial cells at all

Where are Synovial membranes located?

They line the fibrous capsules around joints, and secrete a lubricating fluid. They also line small sacs of connective tissue called bursae and the tube-like tendon sheaths

What is the function of Synovial membranes?

They cushion organs moving against each other during muscle activity. They also line small sacs of bursae and tendon sheaths.

A scalpel penetrates the left lung and enters the heart. Name the six serous membrane layers the blade passes through as it moves from the body surface into the heart.

Parietal pleura, visceral pleura, (lung), visceral pleura, parietal pleura, parietal pericardium, visceral pericardium, (heart).

How do the body locations of serous and mucous membranes differ?

Serous membranes line ventral bod cavities closed to the exterior. Mucous membranes line body cavities open to the exterior.

All of the following are functions of the skin except?
a. excretion of body wastes
b. insulation
c. protection from mechanical damage
d. site of vitamin A & D synthesis

d. site of vitamin A & D synthesis

The skin has two distinct regions. The superficial layer is the ________________, and the underlying connective tissue is the ___________.

Epidermis, Dermis

Nails are hornlike derivatives of the epidermis. True or False

True

The portion of a hair that you see that projects from the scalp surface is known as the ________.
a. bulb
b. matrix
c. root
d. shaft

d. shaft

The ducts of ___________ glands usually empty into a hair follicle but may also open directly on the skin surface.
a. sebaceous
b. sweat

a. Sebaceous

_____________ glands are found primarily in the genital and axillary areas?
a. Eccrine
b. Apocrine

b. Apocrine

Where would you find a synovial membrane

Lining a fibrous capsule surrounding a joint

What are the two distinct regions of the skin?

Epidermis and Dermis

One important role of the skin is to produce vitamin _______, which is essential for healthy cell functioning.
a. D
b. K
c. A
d. C

a. D
Vitamin D synthesis takes place in the skin

The _______ is the avascular, keratinized layer of skin.
a. dermis
b. epidermis
c. subdermis
d. None of these answers is correct.

b. epidermis

The terms sheath, bulb, and follicle all relate to which of the following?
a. sweat
b. hormones
c. homeostasis
d. hair

d. hair

The terms sheath, bulb, and follicle all relate to hair.

What are the functions of skin?

Protection, insulation, prevents water loss from the body surface, acts as a mini-excretory system, the site of vitamin D synthesis, regulates heat loss.

What does the skin protect us from? (name 6)

Mechanical damage (bumps), Chemical damage (acids and bases), Bacterial damage, Ultraviolet radiation (damaging effects of sunlight), Thermal (heat and cold) damage, Desiccation (drying out).

Most minor skin afflictions are attributed to infection or _______.
a. allergy
b. sunlight
c. vitamin D
d. sleeplessness

a. allergy

Burns are assessed by the rule of _______.
a. nines
b. dozens
c. fours
d. sevens

a. nines

Burns are assessed by the rule of nines.

As humans age, the skin's elasticity declines and skin gets _______.
a. hairier
b. thicker
c. darker
d. thinner

d. thinner

As humans age, the skin's elasticity declines and skin gets thinner

Medications and stress can affect hair graying and loss; however, _______ factors play more of a key role.
a. aesthetic
b. genetic
c. mental
d. synthetic

b. genetic

Which one of the following structures is NOT a serious membrane:
a. Peritoneum
b. Pleura
c. Pericardium
d. Perineum

d. Perineum

The cutaneous membrane is ___________.
a. the skin.
b. the mucosa.
c. the peritoneum.
d. the pericardium.

a. the skin.

The two major categories of body membranes are?
a. cutaneous and serous.
b. mucous and cutaneous.
c. epithelial and connective.
d. serosa and parietal.

c. epithelial and connective.

Which of the following statements is NOT a characteristic of the serous membranes?
a. They are continuous with the external environment .
b. They are always a paired membrane.
c. They are filled with fluid to decrease friction.
d. One layer of the membrane will adhere to an organ.

a. They are continuous with the external environment .

Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of mucous membranes?
a. Epithelia modified for absorption and/or secretion.
b. Occasional secretion of mucus.
c. Cushioning of organs.
d. Moistness.

c. Cushioning of organs.

Where would you find a synovial membrane?
a. Lining the mouth.
b. Lining the lungs.
c. Lining the capsule surrounding a joint.
d. Covering the bladder

c. Lining the capsule surrounding a joint.

Which of the following is a function of the skin?
a. Control of body temperature.
b. Production of vitamin D.
c. Protection from mechanical damage
d. All of the above are correct.

d. All of the above are correct.

The outermost layer of the skin is composed of which type of tissues?
a. Simple columnar epithelium.
b. Stratified squamous epithelium.
c. Areolar tissue.
d. Dense fibrous tissue.

b. Stratified squamous epithelium.

The protein that provides a water repellent and toughening quality to the skin is/are:
a. collagen.
b. melanin.
c. keratin.
d. fibroblasts.

c. keratin.

The major layers of the skin are:
a. the dermis and epidermis.
b. the dermis and hypodermis.
c. the strata corneum, lucidum, and granulosum.
d. the epidermis and hypodermis.

a. the dermis and epidermis.

Which of the following structures are not derivatives of the skin?
a. Sebaceous glands.
b. Hair follicles.
c. Nails.
d. Nerve receptors.

d. Nerve receptors.

Which of the following statements best describes melanocytes?
a. They produce keratin.
b. They protect DNA from ultraviolet radiation damage.
c. They produce a wide range of pigment colors.
d. They protect DNA from ultraviolet radiation damage and produce a wide range of pigment colors.

d. They protect DNA from ultraviolet radiation damage and produce a wide range of pigment colors.

Explain the relationships between the words skin, cutaneous membrane, integument, and integumentary system.

skin- the epithelial membrane that covers the body surface.

cutaneous membrane - a synonym for skin

integument - a synonym for skin

integumentary system - the skin and its derivative (nails, hair, glands).

What are the 3 important functions of the integumentary system?

Protects, aids in body heat loss or heat retention, synthesizes vitamin D

Where is the hypodermis located?

Immediately deep to the dermis is the hypodermis, or subcutaneous tissue (primarily adipose tissue).

Is the hypodermis considered to be part of the skin?

No, the hypodermis or subcutaneous tissue is not considered to be part of the skin; however, it does provide and anchor for the skin to the underlying organs and provides a site for nutrient storage.

The dermis is made up of _____________ tissue.

dense connective tissue.

The dermis is made up mostly of dense connective tissue.

How is a blister formed?

After a burn, the dermis epidermis and dermis are forced to separate. When this happens, interstitial fluid accumulates in the cavity between the layers which results in a blister.

What is the function of the hypodermis? Name 4

It attaches skin to underlying organs
Provides a site for nutrient storage
Serves as a shock absorber
Insulates the deeper tissues from extreme temperature changes

Which of the following is NOT an effect of aging on the skin?
a. The skin becomes drier due to decreased oil production.
b. The skin thins, making it susceptible to bruising and other injuries.
c. The subcutaneous layer (hypodermis) thins, causing an intolerance of cold.
d. The hypodermis thickens, causing an intolerance of heat.

d. The hypodermis thickens, causing an intolerance of heat.

Which of the following may be present in a newborn but normally will disappear within a short time?
a. Lanugo.
b. Vernix caseosa.
c. Milia.
d. Acne.

a. Lanugo.
b. Vernix caseosa.
c. Milia.

Which of the following factors do NOT affect the aging and appearance of our skin as an adult?
a. Chemicals.
b. Wind and sun.
c. Smoking.
d. All of the above affect the appearance and aging of our skin.

d. All of the above affect the appearance and aging of our skin

A mucous membrane:
a. lines the digestive and respiratory tracts.
b. lines all closed body cavities.
c. lacks epithelial cells.
d. covers the muscles.
e. lines the heart.

a. lines the digestive and respiratory tracts.

The mucous membrane consists of an epithelium resting on an areolar connective tissue membrane called the lamina propria.

A needle would pierce the skin of the forearm in which order?
(1) stratum basale; (2) stratum granulosum; (3) stratum spinosum; (4) stratum corneum; (5) stratum lucidum
a. 1, 3, 2, 5, 4.
b. 4, 5, 2, 3, 1.
c. 1, 3, 2, 4.
d. 5, 4, 2, 3, 1.
e. 4, 2, 3, 1.

e. 4, 2, 3, 1.

The mucous membrane consists of an epithelium resting on an areolar connective tissue membrane called the lamina propria.

As cells progress from the deeper portion of the epidermis towards the surface:
a. they divide continually by mitosis.
b. their supply of nutrients improves.
c. they tend to die.
d. they divide continually by meiosis.
e. they become dermal cells.

c. they tend to die.

The cells tend to die as they move towards the surface from the deeper layers of the epidermis.

Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light causes the skin to darken by stimulating the production of:
a. carotene.
b. keratin.
c. haemocyanin.
d. melanin.
e. sebum.

d. melanin.

Exposure of the melanocytes to the sun stimulates them to produce more melanin. Melanin is a yellow to brown to black pigment.

Glands usually associated with the skin of the genitals and the axillary region, and which secrete fatty acids and proteins, are called:
a. apocrine glands.
b. arrector pili glands.
c. sebaceous glands.
d. eccrine glands.
e. apocrine and eccrine glands.

a. apocrine glands.

These glands are largely confined to the axillary and genital regions of the body.

Mitosis occurs in which layer of the epidermis?
a. Stratum corneum.
b. Stratum basale.
c. Stratum granulosum.
d. Stratum lucidum.
e. Reticular layer.

b. Stratum basale.

The stratum basale is the deepest layer of the epidermis. The cells in this layer are constantly undergoing mitosis.

Hair, nails, and the outer layer of the skin are made mostly of a tough waterproof protein called:
a. Elastin.
b. Collagen.
c. Cerumen.
d. Keratin

d. Keratin

Keratin is found in these structures.

In the skin, arrector pili muscles are found mainly in the:
a. stratum basale.
b. stratum corneum.
c. stratum granulosum.
d. dermis.
e. stratum spinosum.

d. dermis.

Pacinian corpuscles:
a. are deep pressure sensitive receptors.
b. relocated in the very thick layers of the epidermis.
c. are also known as Meissner's corpuscles.
d. give rise to the elastic fibers in the skin layers.
e. contain free nerve endings for the perception of pain.

a. are deep pressure sensitive receptors

The Pacinian corpuscles are the deep pressure receptors in the reticular layer of the dermis of the skin.

Sebaceous glands secrete:
a. oil.
b. salty sweat.
c. wax.
d. melanin.
e. cerumen.

a. oil.

Sebum, the secretion of the sebaceous glands, is a mixture of oily substances and fragmented cells.

Which of the following statements regarding the significance of alterations in skin color is FALSE?
a. Jaundice usually signifies a liver disorder in which excess bile pigments are deposited in body tissues.
b. Bruises reveal sites where blood has escaped from the circulation and become hematomas.
c. Blanching (or pallor) may signify anemia, low blood pressure, allergy, or impaired blood flow into an area.
d. Erythema may indicate embarrassment, fever, inflammation, or hypertension.
e. None of the above statements is false.

c. Blanching (or pallor) may signify anemia, low blood pressure, allergy, or impaired blood flow into an area.

An allergic reaction would result in erythema, rather than pallor.

The papillary layer attaches to the:
a. nail bed.
b. stratum corneum.
c. hypodermis.
d. hair cells.
e. stratum basale and reticular layer.

e. stratum basale and reticular layer.

The papillary layer anchors the epidermis to the dermis.

The structure that contracts to cause "goose bumps" is the:
a. dermal papilla.
b. hair bulb.
c. skeletal muscle.
d. hair follicle.
e. arrector pili muscle

e. arrector pili muscle

The arrector pili muscle is attached to the hair follicle and moves the hair when it contracts.

The toughened outer portion of the hair is termed the:
a. cuticle.
b. hair bulb.
c. hair cortex.
d hair follicle.
e. hair medulla.

a. cuticle.

The outermost cuticle layer covers the hair cortex region.

The type of tissue making up the bulk of the dermis is:
a. adipose connective tissue.
b. dense (irregular) connective tissue.
c. stratified squamous epithelium.
d. visceral muscle.
e. transitional epithelium.

b. dense (irregular) connective tissue.

The dermis is a strong stretchy structure that consists of dense (irregular) connective tissue.

Two types of glands found in the skin are the _______ and _______ glands.
a. pilous; sudoriferous
b. sebaceous; lunula
c. thymus; sebaceous
d. sudoriferous; sebaceous
e. sweat; basale

d. sudoriferous; sebaceous

The sudoriferous sweat glands and the sebaceous glands are both found in the dermis.

When assessing the extent of burns on the body using the rule of nines, the anterior and posterior trunk represents about what percentage of the body?
a. 9%.
b. 18%.
c. 27%.
d. 36%.
e. 1%.

d. 36%.

The anterior trunk and the posterior trunk each represent 18% of the body; therefore, the total is 36%.

When you scratch your skin, what comes off as white flakes are mostly cells from the stratum _______.
a. basale.
b. corneum.
c. granulosum.
d. lucidum.
e. spinosum.

b. corneum

The skin's surface layer is the stratum corneum.

Which of the following vitamins is synthesized in the skin?
a. Vitamin A.
b. Vitamin D.
c. Vitamin E.
d. Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin).
e. Vitamin K.

b. Vitamin D.

In the skin, modified cholesterol molecules are converted by sunlight to Vitamin D.

You can cut your hair without feeling pain because:
a. the shaft of the hair consists of dead cells.
b. there are no nerves found within one centimeter of each hair.
c. hair follicles develop from epidermal cells and the epidermis has no nerve endings.
d. hair follicles have no source of nourishment and thus cannot react to being cut.
e. a chemical in the hair papilla anaesthetizes the hair

a. the shaft of the hair consists of dead cells.

The cytoplasm of the hair cells is replaced very shortly after leaving the hair bulb; therefore, the hair is dead.

How does the Mechanical function of the Integumentary accomplish protection ?

It contains keratin, which toughens cells; it has fat cells, that cushion blows; and it has pressure receptors that alerts the nervous system to touch, pressure, pain, temperature and wind.

How does the Chemical function of the Integumentary accomplish protection ?

Keratinized cells are impermeable, contains pain receptors that alert the nervous system.

How does the Bacterial function of the Integumentary accomplish protection ?

With an unbroken surface and acid mantle. Phagocytes ingest foreign substances and pathogens, preventing penetration into deeper body tissues.

How does the Ultraviolet Radiation function of the Integumentary accomplish protection ?

Melanin (produced by melanocytes) offers production from UV damage.

How does the Thermal function of the Integumentary accomplish protection ?

Contains heat/cold/pain receptors.

How does the Desiccation (drying out) function of the Integumentary accomplish protection ?

Contains a water resistant glycolipid and keratin.

What body system controls heat loss or heat retention within the body?

Nervous System

How is Vitamin D synthesize Vitamin D?

Modified cholesterol molecules in the skin are converted to Vitamin D by sunlight.

Most of the cells of the epidermis are ____________, which produce _____________, the fibrous protein that makes the epidermis a tough protective layer.

keratinocytes, kerotin.

What function do the dendrite cells perform?

The alert and activate the immune system cells to the threat of bacterial or viral invasion.

What function do the Merkel cells perform?

Merkel cells are associated with nerve endings that act as touch receptors

What type of cell is most abundant in the epidermis?

Keratinocytes are the most abundant cells type in the epidermis.

Which layer of the epidermis produces new epidermal cells?

Stratum basale.

Excess shedding of scales from the superficial layer of the skin of the scalp causes dandruff. What is the name of the skin layer?

Stratum corneum

What layer of the dermis consists of the dermal papillae that forms looped and whorled ridges?

Papillary layer

What layer of the dermis contains connective tissue, blood vessels, sweat and oil glands and lamellar corpuscles?

Reticular layer

What is another name for the deep pressure receptors within the reticular layer?

Lamellar corpuscles

What purpose do phagocytes serve?

They prevent bacterial from penetrating any deeper into the body..

In what layer are collagen and elastic fibers found?

The reticular layer of the dermis (bottom layer of dermis)

What function do collagen fibers have?

They are responsible for the toughness of the dermis, they also attract and bind water and keep the skin hydrated.

What are the three pigments that contribute to skin color?

Melanin, Carotene, Oxygen-rich hemoglobin

In what layers is carotene deposited?

Stratum corneum and subcutaneous tissue.

How is carotene supplied to the body?

When a person eats large amounts of carotene-rich foods such as carrots and other orange, deep yellow, or leafy green vegetables.

What is cyanosis?

A condition of poorly oxygenated blood.

In what conditions is cyanosis common?

Heart failure, and severe breathing disorders

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