US History Final Chapter 12 Section 3

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New Mexico

Name of vast region sandwiched between Texas and Californi territories. Included present-day New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, and parts of Colorado and Wyoming.

Santa Fe

Founded by Spanish conquistadors and was part of Mexico, Missionaries followed soon after.

No, the inhabitants of New Mexico mostly governed themselves.

Did Mexico have control over the distant province?

William Becknell

The first American trader to reach Santa Fe. He arrived with a pack of mules loaded with goods. He sold the merchandise for many times what he would have recieved for it it St. Louis. His route became known as the Santa Fe Trail. He was important because he discovered the trail that pioneers used to get to New Mexico.

Santa Fe Trail

Trail used by William Becknell to get to Santa Fe. It was a mostly flat trail that became a busy trade route for hundreds of wagons making the journey. The trail remained in use until the arrival of the railroad. It was important because it was used to get to New Mexico.

Father Junipero Serra and Captain Gaspar de Portola.

Who built a string of missions that eventually extended from San Diego to Sonoma?

Mission system

Key part of Spain's plan to colonize California. They used these to convert Native Americans to Christianity. Eventually, 20,000 Native Americans lived and worked in them.

Jedediah Smith

He was a mountain man who visited the San Gabriel Mission and reported that the native Americans farmed thousands of acres and called them slaves. He was a hardy traveler who traveled overland to get to California.

California

Became a state of the new Mexican nation. At the time, only a few hundred Spanish settlers lived there. Wealthier settlers lived on ranches devoted to raising cattle and horses.

Ranchos

Huge properties for raising livestock set up by Mexican settlers in California. When the Mexican government abolished missions, the governments gave the lands to Native Americans and sold the remainder to Mexican settlers, who bought these and built ranchos.

Rancheros

Mexican ranch owner. These treated Native American workers like slaves.

John C. Fremont

An American army officer who made trips through California wrote glowing reports of California. He declared he would conquer California. He was important because his love of California made more Americans want to settle there, making it easier for America to take over.

The nation would be safely bordered by the sea instead of a foreign power.

What would the advantage of annexing California be?

James K. Polk

President who was determined to get the California and New Mexico territories from Mexico and had offered twice to buy them. He wanted to fulfill the nation's Manifest Destiny. He plotted to pull the Mexican provinces into the U.S. through provoking them into war. He had a three part plan for the war. Because of him, the U.S. gained the territories he so desparately wanted.

Rio Grande

The U.S. insisted that this was the border between them and Mexico because it gave them more land.

Nueces River

Mexico claimed this as border, because it was 150 miles farther north and gave them more land.

John Slidell

Polk sent him as an agent to Mexico to propose a deal. He was authorized $30 million for California and New Mexico in return for Mexico's acceptance of the Rio Grande border. The Mexican government refused to discuss the offer.

General Zachary Taylor

Polk ordered him to march his soldiers across the disputed borderland and build a fort there. He sent the president a report saying that the Mexico began fighting with them. In return, Polk held an emergency cabinet meeting to pass a declaration of war on Mexico. He accomplished the first part of Polk's war plan by capturing Matamoros and Monterry. He defeated the Mexicans at Buena Vista, securing the border. Important because he gave the report that officially began the war with Mexico and he accomplished the first war goal.

They supported it (they were Polk's party).

What were Democrats opinion on the war?

They were opposed to it, calling it aggressive and unjust.

What were Whigs opinions on the war?

Waging war to spread slavery.

What did Northerners accuse Democrats of?

Abraham Lincoln

Illinois Congressman who was against the war. He demanded to know where the first attack on American troops had occurred, and when he found out, he claimed that the spot was in Mexico, so there was no grounds for blaming the war on Mexico. Important because he questioned the President's moves in the war.

Frederick Douglass

An African American leader in the antislavery movement. He called the war disgraceful and cruel. He shared the belief that expanding into the West would lead to the Southern states carrying slavery into the new territories.

Support the war.

What did newspapers generally do?

For American troops to drive Mexican forces out of the disputed border region in Texas and make the border secure.

What was the first part of Polk's three part war plan?

The U.S. would seize New Mexico and California.

What was the second part of Polk's three part war plan?

American forces would take Mexico's capital, Mexico City.

What was the third part of Polk's three part war plan?

Monterry

Zachary Taylor vaptured the town of Matamoros and this city, and then later Buena Vista. This secured the Texas border. Important because capturing this was the accomplishment of the first war goal.

Stephen Watts Kearny

He led his troops to New Mexico and California. He led about 1,500 cavalry soldiers along the Santa Fe Trail from Fort Leavenworth to New Mexico. The Mexican governor fled, leaving the Americans to capture New Mexico's capital of Santa Fe. Important because it was another victory toward winning the war with Mexico.

Bear Flag Republic

A small group of Americans had seized the town of Sonoma north of San Francisco and proclaimed the independent Republic of California. They called it this because its new flag bore a bear and a star. Important because small independences led to winning the war with Mexico.

Californios

Mexicans who lived in California. They opposed the attempt by a band of Americans to seize their land. Outraged at Fremont's declaration of conqeuring California. When it was declared that California had been annexed, they rebelled. Important because they were another force up against the Americans.

Kit Carson

Mountain man who joined the American forces in Sonoma and who also was a part of John Sloat's fleet that declared California annexed to the U.S. He headed east with the news of the annexation. He was important because he was the first to bring the news of the annexation to the U.S.

Commodore John Sloat

A United States Navy squadron was under his control. He captured the ports of Monterey and San Fransisco. He declared California annexed to the U.S. They replaced the Bear Flag with the American flag. He was important because he declared the annexation.

Winfield Scott

Polk gave the task of capturing Mexico City to him. His army landed on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, near the port of Veracruz. They captured the port of Veracruz after a three-week siege and then set out on a march to Mexico City. They fought their way toward Mexico City eventually overtook Mexico City. The Mexican government surrendered. This resulted in the winning of the war and the annexation of California and New Mexico.

Veracruz

The Mexican port captured by the Americans which led to the winning of the war.

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

In this treaty, Mexico gave up all claims to Texas and agreed to the Rio Grande as the border between Texas and Mexico. This gave the U.S. more land, somewhat fulfilling Manifest Destiny.

Mexican Cession

In this, Mexico gave its provinces of California and New Mexico to the U.S. In return, Mexico gave Mexico $15 million. This was important because the U.S. gained more land, fulfilling Manifest Destiny.

Cede

To give up by treaty. Mexico did this in the Mexico Cession. It gave up the provinces of New Mexico and California by treaty. This was important because Mexico gave the U.S. more land.

Gadsden Purchase

The U.S. paid an additional $10 million for a strip of land along the southern edge of the present-day states of Arizona and New Mexico. This was important because with this purchase, the U.S. mainland reached its present size.

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