chapter 4 nutrition

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Characteristics of dietary phytic acid include all of the following except a. it is classified as a fiber.
b. it is found in the husks of grains.
c. it is synonymous with the term phytate.
d. it inhibits absorption of several minerals.

it is classified as a fiber

Which of the following describes the compound phytic acid?
a. Product of starch digestion
b. Nonnutrient component of plant seeds
c. Found in gastric juice and helps to lower pH of chyme
d. Found in high concentrations in the blood of people with diabetes

nonnutrient component of plant seeds

Which of the following is a feature of kefir?
a. Its low pH inactivates lactose
b. It contains live bacterial organisms
c. It contains half as much lactose as milk
d. It is a recommended substitute for people with milk allergy

it contains live bacterial organisms

Which of the following ingredients listed on food labels would be acceptable to the person who is highly intolerant to lactose in the diet?
a. Whey
b. Casein
c. Dextrins
d. Milk solids

dextrin

What is the first organ to respond to an increase in blood glucose concentration?
a. Brain
b. Liver
c. Muscle
d. Pancreas

pancreas

When blood glucose concentration falls, what pancreatic hormone is secreted to stimulate release of stored glucose?
a. Insulin
b. Glucagon
c. Epinephrine
d. Cholecystokinin

glucagon

Characteristics of dietary phytic acid include all of the following except
a. it is classified as a fiber.
b. it is found in the husks of grains.
c. it is synonymous with the term phytate.
d. it inhibits absorption of several minerals.

it is classified as a fiber

What is the primary organ that converts fructose to glucose following absorption?
a. Liver
b. Pancreas
c. Skeletal muscle
d. Small intestines

liver

Which of the following enzymes does not act on simple sugars?
a. Lactase
b. Sucrase
c. Amylase
d. Maltase

amylase

The chief carbohydrate in beet sugar is
a. starch.
b. sucrose.
c. glycogen.
d. invert sugar.

sucrose

What is the name of the animal polysaccharide composed of glucose units?
a. Fiber
b. Enzyme
c. Dextrin
d. Glycogen

glycogen

Which of the following is a characteristic of dietary fibers?
a. They cause diverticulosis
b. They raise blood cholesterol levels
c. They are usually found in high-fat foods
d. They are classified according to solubility in water

they are usually classified according to solubility in water

With few exceptions, all of the following characteristics are shared by water-soluble and water-insoluble fibers except
a. they are found only in plant-derived foods.
b. they consist primarily of nonstarch polysaccharides.
c. neither has an appreciable effect on glucose absorption.
d. their consumption enhances stool formation and elimination.

neither has an appreciable effect on glucose absorption

Which of the following fibers is water insoluble?
a. Gums
b. Pectins
c. Cellulose
d. Mucilages

cellulose

Water-soluble fibers include all of the following except
a. gums.
b. pectins.
c. lignins.
d. mucilages.

lignins

What is the name of the short chains of glucose units that result from starch breakdown?
a. Sucrose
b. Lignins
c. Pectins
d Dextrins

dextrins

When you are under physical stress, what hormone is released quickly to stimulate an increase in blood glucose concentration?
a. Insulin
b. Secretin
c. Glucogen
d. Epinephrine

epinephrine

In the time between meals, what organ releases glucose to help maintain normal blood glucose levels?
a. Liver
b. Pancreas
c. Intestines
d. Skeletal muscle

liver

Which of the following artificial sweeteners has a composition similar to aspartame?
a. Neotame
b. Sucralose
c. Saccharin
d. Acesulfame-K

neotame

All of the following components are part of the chemical structure of aspartame except
a. aspartic acid.
b. methyl group.
c. phenylalanine.
d. methanol group.

methanol group

Which of the following is a characteristic of the sugar replacers (sugar alcohols)?
a. They have a low glycemic index
b. They promote constipation in children
c. They demonstrate fewer GI side effects than the alternative sweeteners
d. They are less effective than alternative sweeteners in inhibiting dental caries

they have a low glycemic index

Which of the following is a general feature of the sugar alcohols (sugar replacers)?
a. They provide less than 1 kcalorie per gram
b. They elicit a high glycemic index
c. They are rapidly absorbed from the intestines
d. They cannot be metabolized by cariogenic bacteria

they cannot be metabolized by carriogenic bacteria

Which of the following is not a feature of high-fiber foods?
a. Effective in weight control
b. Provide feeling of fullness
c. Usually lower in fat and simple sugars
d. Provide more energy per gram than processed foods

provide more energy than processed foods

Which of the following is not a simple carbohydrate?
a. Starch
b. White sugar
c. Disaccharide
d. Monosaccharide

starch

Which of the following is a property of dietary lipids?
a. Omega-3 fatty acids are always unsaturated
b. Lipids that are solid at room temperature are classified as oils
c. The fatty acids in triglycerides may be of chain length 2 to 25 carbons
d. The most common fatty acid chain length in triglycerides is 10 carbons

Omega three fatty acids are always unsaturated

How many hydrogen atoms are attached to each carbon adjacent to a double bond?
a. 1
b. 2
c. 4
d. 6

1

What is the simplest fatty acid found in the diet?
a. Oleic acid
b. Acetic acid
c. Linoleic acid
d. Palmitic acid

acetic acid

Which of the following is a common dietary saturated fatty acid?
a. Oleic acid
b. Stearic acid
c. Linolenic acid
d. Arachidonic acid

stearic acid

What type of fatty acid is found in high amounts in olive oil?
a. Saturated
b. Monounsaturated
c. Polyunsaturated
d. Partially hydrogenated

monounsaturated

Which one of the following compounds is missing 4 or more hydrogen atoms?
a. Monounsaturated fatty acid
b. Polyunsaturated fatty acid
c. Long-chain saturated fatty acid
d. Short-chain saturated fatty acid

polyunsaturated fatty acid

Which of the following is a polyunsaturated fatty acid in foods?
a. Oleic acid
b. Acetic acid
c. Stearic acid
d. Linoleic acid

linoleic acid

Which of the following is a characteristic of lipids?
a. A quick way to spoil fats is by exposure to carbon dioxide
b. Typically, the shorter the carbon chain, the firmer the fat at 75°
c. Corn oil and sunflower are more prone to spoilage than palm kernel oil
d. Palm oil and coconut oil are very liquid due to their longer carbon chains

Corn oil and sunflower are more prone to spoilage than palm kernel oil

When stored at room temperature in loosely capped containers, which of the following dietary lipids would turn rancid in the shortest time?
a. Lard
b. Peanut oil
c. Soybean oil
d. Coconut oil

soybean oil

Which of the following has the highest percentage of its fat in polyunsaturated form?
a. Butter
b. Corn oil
c. Beef tallow
d. Coconut oil

corn oil

The food industry often carries out the process of hydrogenation on which of the following lipids?
a. Corn oil
b. Olive oil
c. Beef tallow
d. Coconut oil

corn oil

Which of the following is considered a major source of polyunsaturated fat?
a. Corn oil
b. Palm oil
c. Peanut oil
d. Chicken fat

corn oil

All of the following are rich sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids except
a. palm oil.
b. fish oils.
c. soybean oil.
d. safflower oil.

palm oil

Which of the following is a feature of choline?
a. It is a part of lecithin
b. It is a type of cis-fatty acid
c. It is a type of trans-fatty acid
d. It is attached to omega-3 fatty acids

it is a part of lecitin

A characteristic of lecithin supplements is they
a. are mostly hydrolyzed in the intestine.
b. contribute small amounts of magnesium.
c. have an energy content of 4 kcalories per gram.
d. contribute large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids.

are mostly hydrolzyed in the intenstine

Which of the following is not a feature of lecithin?
a. Widespread in foods
b. Found in cell membranes
c. Manufactured by the body
d. Dietary supplements inhibit fat absorption

dietary supplement inhibit fat absoprtion

What is the approximate energy value of one teaspoon of liquid lecithin supplement?
a. 0 kcal
b. 2 kcal
c. 45 kcal
d. 200 kcal

45 kcal

What is the major sterol in the diet?
a. Palm oil
b. Lecithin
c. Cholesterol
d. Arachidonic acid

cholesterol

Which of the following is a feature of cholesterol?
a. Only about 10% of the body's total cholesterol is extracellular
b. "Bad" cholesterol is a form of cholesterol found in plant foods
c. "Good" cholesterol is a form of cholesterol found in plant foods
d. Exogenous cholesterol absorption is reduced by lecithin supplements

Only about 10% of the body's total cholesterol is extracellular

What lipoprotein is largest in size?
a. Chylomicron
b. High-density lipoprotein
c. Low-density lipoprotein
d. Very-low-density lipoprotein

chylomicron

Which of the following is used by the body to synthesize arachidonic acid?
a. Oleic acid
b. Linoleic acid
c. Palmitic acid
d. Linolenic acid

lineolic acid

What are the precursor for synthesis of the eicosanoids?
a. Steroids
b. Short-chain fatty acids
c. Medium-chain saturated fatty acids
d. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids

long chain

Which of the following is a feature of fat intake and health?
a. Intake of saturated fat raises blood cholesterol more than intake of cholesterol
b. High intakes of fish oil lower bleeding time and improve diabetes and wound healing
c. High intakes of short- and medium-chain fatty acids raise high-density lipoprotein levels
d. Trans-fatty acids contained in polyunsaturated fats but not in monounsaturated fats alter blood cholesterol levels

Intake of saturated fat raises blood cholesterol more than intake of cholesterol

According to the Dietary Guidelines, what should be the maximum total fat intake as a percentage of energy intake?
a. 10
b. 20
c. 35
d. 50

35

Which of the following is a polyunsaturated fatty acid in foods?
a. Oleic acid
b. Acetic acid
c. Stearic acid
d. Linoleic acid

linolic acid

Which of the following has the highest percentage of its fat in saturated form?
a. Butter
b. Walnut oil
c. Beef tallow
d. Coconut oil

coconut oil

Which of the following provides abundant amounts of omega-3 fatty acids?
a. Palm oil
b. Walnut oil
c. Soybean oil
d. Flaxseed oil

flaxseed oil

The food industry often carries out the process of hydrogenation on which of the following lipids?
a. Corn oil
b. Olive oil
c. Beef tallow
d. Coconut oil

corn oil

All of the following are rich sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids except
a. palm oil.
b. fish oils.
c. soybean oil.
d. safflower oil.

palm oil

Which of the following is a feature of choline?
a. It is a part of lecithin
b. It is a type of cis-fatty acid
c. It is a type of trans-fatty acid
d. It is attached to omega-3 fatty acids

it is a part of lecithin

A characteristic of lecithin supplements is they
a. are mostly hydrolyzed in the intestine.
b. contribute small amounts of magnesium.
c. have an energy content of 4 kcalories per gram.
d. contribute large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids.

are mostly hydrolyzed in the intestine

Which of the following is not a feature of lecithin?
a. Widespread in foods
b. Found in cell membranes
c. Manufactured by the body
d. Dietary supplements inhibit fat absorption

dietary supplements inhibit fat absorption

A common feature of the plant sterols is they
a. raise LDL and lower HDL.
b. inhibit absorption of dietary cholesterol.
c. inhibit absorption of "bad" cholesterol.
d. enhance absorption of omega-3 fatty acids.

inhibit absorption of dietary cholesterol.

Which of the following is characteristic of the lipase enzymes?
a. Gastric lipase plays a significant role in fat digestion in adults
b. Intestinal mucosal lipase is responsible for most dietary fat digestion
c. Salivary gland lipase (lingual lipase) plays an active role in fat digestion in infants
d. Pancreatic lipase hydrolyzes most dietary triglycerides completely to glycerol and free fatty acids

Salivary gland lipase (lingual lipase) plays an active role in fat digestion in infants

Which of the following is not a feature of the bile acids?
a. Stored in the gallbladder
b. Synthesized from cholesterol
c. Manufactured by the gallbladder
d. Released into the small intestine whenever fat is present

manufactured by the gallbladder

Which of the following is an omega-3 fat?
a. Acetic acid
b. Palmitic acid
c. Linoleic acid
d. Docosahexaenoic acid

docasahexaenoic acid

When consumed regularly, which of the following fatty acids helps prevent the formation of blood clots?
a. Oleic acid
b. Stearic acid
c. Arachidonic acid
d. Eicosapentaenoic acid

Eicosapentaenoic acid

When consumed regularly, which of the following fatty acids helps prevent the formation of blood clots?
a. Oleic acid
b. Stearic acid
c. Arachidonic acid
d. Eicosapentaenoic acid

Eicosapentaenoic acid

Which of the following is a polyunsaturated fatty acid in foods?
a. Oleic acid
b. Acetic acid
c. Stearic acid
d. Linoleic acid

lineolic acid

Typical dietary sources of carbohydrate include all of the following except
a. starch.
b. maltose.
c. phytates.
d. glycogen.

glycogen

What percentage of the world's adult population shows good tolerance to lactose ingestion?
a. 30
b. 55
c. 80
d. 95

30

Approximately how many kcalories are provided by two teaspoons of sugar?
a. 10
b. 20
c. 30
d. 40

30

In general, modifying a diet that by substituting complex carbohydrates for pure sugars results in a diet that is higher in
a. fat.
b. fiber.
c. energy.
d. refined foods.

fiber

What is the DRI for fiber for a person consuming 2500 kcalories?
a. 5 g
b. 15 g
c. 25 g
d. 35 g

35

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