Corrections Test 2

90 terms by snreece

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

d. 227%

The prison population has grown by about what percent over the past twenty years (since 1985)?
a. 53%
b. 87%
c. 132%
d. 227%

d. 70%

What percent of the prison population have not graduated from high school or obtained a GED?
a. 10%
b. 30%
c. 50%
d. 70%

d. $74,000

What is the average cost to build a new prison indicated per prison bed?
a. $15,000
b. $23,000
c. $45,000
d. $74,000

d. 1,700

How many state and local prisons are in operation across the United States?
a. 500
b. 700
c. 1,000
d. 1,700

c. 1,300,000

Approximately how many people are imprisoned at the sate level in the United States?
a. 100,000
b. 500,000
c. 1,300,000
d. 2,000,000

b. Drug

The most common current offense that results in incarceration is which of the following?
a. Public order offenses
b. Drug
c. Violence
d. Property

d. Greater Dallas Area Department of Corrections

Four local institutions house more offenders than many state's entire prison systems. Which one is NOT one of the "Big Four?"
a. Philadelphia Prison System
b. New York City Department of Corrections
c. Washington, DC Department of Corrections
d. Greater Dallas Area Department of Corrections

b. About 8 years

What is the average sentence length for prisoners serving in state institutions?
a. About 5 years
b. About 8 years
c. About 12 years
d. About 17 years

d. Institutional needs

Which of the following factors most often hampers inmates getting the work, educational, vocational programs that they need?
a. Initial classification
b. Inmate needs
c. Reclassification
d. Institutional needs

b. To assign an offender to an institution

The purpose of the initial classification is to do which of the following?
a. To assign an offender to an educational program
b. To assign an offender to an institution
c. To assign an offender to a treatment program
d. To assign an offender to a work program

c. 1891

The federal government passed a congressional bill to build the first three prisons in what year?
a. 1821
b. 1859
c. 1891
d. 1911

d. The Durham Act

Federal Law expanded in the early 1900s that resulted in more inmates in federal institutions. Which of the following is not one of the acts that created more federal prisoners?
a. The Harrison Narcotic Act
b. The Volsted Act
c. White Slave Act
d. The Durham Act

b. To provide assistance to state and local correctional agencies and centers

Why was the National Institute of Corrections established?
a. To assist and train federal correctional officers
b. To provide assistance to state and local correctional agencies and centers
c. To serve the political interests of the president
d. To forward significant changes in federal inmate management

c. 1927

One of the first all-female federal prison opened in what year?
a. 1891
b. 1919
c. 1927
d. 1943

b. Auburn system

All of the first federal prisons adopted their architectural design from which of the following?
a. State system
b. Auburn system
c. Pennsylvania system
d. Italian system

c. 55%

The percentage of the federal inmates incarcerated for drug offenses is about?
a. 25%
b. 35%
c. 55%
d. 65%

d. 24,500 inmates

How many offenders are house through private prisons at the federal level?
a. 5,000 inmates
b. 13,500 inmates
c. 17,500 inmates
d. 24,500 inmates

b. Law enforcement training

Federal Institutions provide the following academic and occupational opportunities except:
a. Apprentice programs
b. Law enforcement training
c. College courses
d. Vocational training

b. 7%

About what percentage of the total federal inmate population do women comprise?
a. 2%
b. 7%
c. 10%
d. 17%

a. Weapons use

The federal BOP has an objective inmate classification system. Which of the following variables is not included in this classification system?
a. Weapons use
b. Prior commitments
c. History of escapes
d. Severity of offense

a. Inmate labor was sold according to the "free world" market value of labor.

Private companies have historically been involved in corrections. Which of the following does NOT characterize this involvement?
a. Inmate labor was sold according to the "free world" market value of labor.
b. Inmates manufactured wagons, boots, shoes, and other consumables on the open markets.
c. Inmate labor would be sold to private companies to absolve correctional costs.
d. Over 50% of the leased out inmates died under contract conditions.

d. Supervised treatment programs

Which of the following privatization areas is very common in the field yet largely ignored in discussions of the privatization of corrections?
a. High-security jails and prisons
b. Food service
c. Medical care
d. Supervised treatment programs

d. Supermax prison institutions

Private companies are developing programs at the low—end of the security spectrum. Which of the following is NOT one of these institutions increasingly offered through private companies?
a. Community work release centers
b. Prerelease centers
c. Restitution centers
d. Supermax prison institutions

d. 800%

Between 1992 and mid-year 2002, the contract capacity for privatization of adult secure facilities grew by what percent?
a. 50%
b. 100%
c. 300%
d. 800%

b. Provides better administration, management, and employees than state run institutions.

Privatization of correctional institutions offers all of the following services in corrections except:
a. Provides programs for inmates that prepare them for release.
b. Provides better administration, management, and employees than state run institutions.
c. Bridges incarceration with society to help in the transition upon release.
d. Provides alternatives to incarceration in the community.

a. 1983

When did the first privatization of secure adult facilities approximately begin?
a. 1983
b. 1988
c. 1995
d. 1998

d. Privatization keeps the government in control of corrections priorities.

All of the following are disadvantages to the privatization movement in corrections except:
a. Privatization has become punishment for profit.
b. Justice issues in corrections rely on a political process and democracy, not economic.
c. Privatization results in the monetary colonization of criminal justice.
d. Privatization keeps the government in control of corrections priorities.

c. Low-security custody programs

Which of the following privatization areas is the fastest growing area in corrections and most important segment for business?
a. Leasing inmate labor
b. Training services
c. Low-security custody programs
d. High-security custody programs

a. High-security jails and prisons

Heated controversy and a "feeding frenzy" in litigation come manly from the privatization of which of the following correctional services?
a. High-security jails and prisons
b. Correctional training
c. Food service
d. Medical care

c. Private companies have begun to offer surveillance and control technologies in their high-end security institutions.

Surveillance and control technologies expand the privatization market in corrections in all of the following ways except:
a. Private companies are expanding low-end security services with these devises.
b. Private companies use cheap and reliance drug tests that have increased the number of drug offenders returning to custody.
c. Private companies have begun to offer surveillance and control technologies in their high-end security institutions.
d. High technology devices offer the possibility of confinement without custody.

a. Burglary

Which of the following crimes is least likely to result in a death sentence?
a. Burglary
b. Murder
c. Rape
d. Homicide

d. Minnesota

Two-thirds of all executions took place in one of five states. Which of the following is not one of these states?
a. Missouri
b. Texas
c. Virginia
d. Minnesota

a. The prosecutor

Who seeks the death penalty sentence in a court of law?
a. The prosecutor
b. The defense counsel
c. The victims
d. The judge

b. It constitutes cruel and unusual punishment

What is the 8th Amendment's assertion against the death penalty?
a. It is arbitrarily applied
b. It constitutes cruel and unusual punishment
c. It is not supported by the majority of Americans
d. It is permitted without adequate appellate review

c. California

There is evidence that the death penalty is racially biased based on the race of the victim in certain jurisdictions in all of the following except:
a. Georgia
b. Texas
c. California
d. Kentucky

d. No one under the age of 18 when the capital crime was committed

What is the lowest age that the Supreme Court has declared a juvenile can be executed?
a. 10 years old
b. 12 years old
c. 16 years old
d. No one under the age of 18 when the capital crime was committed

b. Deterrence

Which is one of the main reasons that executions were done as a public spectacle?
a. Incapacitation
b. Deterrence
c. Management
d. Rehabilitation

d. Massachusetts

Which of the following jurisdictions or states in America do NOT have the death penalty?
a. Florida
b. Federal government
c. Texas
d. Massachusetts

a. Religious doctrine

The constitutionality of state-supported execution includes all of the following concerns except:
a. Religious doctrine
b. 6th and 14th Amendments of equability
c. Public attitudes toward capital punishment
d. 8th Amendment against cruel and unusual punishment

a. Electric chair, lethal gas, lethal injection

Which of the following progression of execution methods reflects the temporal progression of executions in America since the late 1800s?
a. Electric chair, lethal gas, lethal injection
b. Lethal gas, electric chair, lethal injection
c. Lethal injection, lethal gas, electric chair
d. Electric chair, lethal injection, lethal gas

c. Expungement

Which of the following is the process of destroying or sealing the record of a crime conviction after a statutorily determined length of time?
a. Banishment
b. Annulment
c. Expungement
d. Pardon

b. Pardon

Which of the following is executive mercy of a crime; it represents forgiving the offender for the crime?
a. Banishment
b. Pardon
c. Expungement
d. Annulment

a. Section 1983 of the U.S. Code

How do inmates generally sue prison administrator in issues of medical treatment as of late?
a. Section 1983 of the U.S. Code
b. State court
c. Torts
d. The 14th Amendment

a. A criminal act

A tort is described by all of the following statements except:
a. A criminal act
b. Defendant's omission of an act that is owed to the plaintiff
c. A civil wrong
d. Defendant's omission of an act that is required by his or her position

c. Right to counsel

Which of the following is NOT a collateral consequence?
a. Right to hold office
b. Right to vote
c. Right to counsel
d. Right to own firearm

d. Registration

How are sex offenders traced throughout their lives after release from prison?
a. "blue card"
b. Marking
c. Branding
d. Registration

a. Only the amount the administrators can readily censor

What is the usual amount of mail an inmate can receive?
a. Only the amount the administrators can readily censor
b. As much as is mailed to the inmate
c. All mail as long as it does not contain contraband
d. None

d. Clear and present danger standard

How do administrator and correctional officers test the permissibility of mail and literature?
a. Reasonableness standard
b. Legislative standard
c. Incendiary standard
d. Clear and present danger standard

b. 1963

In what year was the right to counsel established for inmates?
a. 1920
b. 1963
c. 1972
d. 1982

b. Wits and muscle

In what ways is the legend of an ex-con a myth?
a. Poor
b. Wits and muscle
c. Young
d. Undereducated

b. High school diploma or GED

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the typical male inmate?
a. Functionally illiterate
b. High school diploma or GED
c. Drug and alcohol abuser
d. Dangerous

c. 1%-6% of male inmates test positive for drug use in prison

Which of the following statements is true with regards to male inmate drug use in prison?
a. Male inmates choose not to use drugs
b. Imprisonment prevents drug use
c. 1%-6% of male inmates test positive for drug use in prison
d. Drug use is not considered an important issue in male imprisonment

b. Apathetic public opinion about crime.

There is little agreement as to exactly why the male prison population has increased so dramatically. All of the following are potential reasons except:
a. Judicial pressure and sentencing practices designed to "get tough" on crime.
b. Apathetic public opinion about crime.
c. Police and courts became more efficient than the correctional system did.
d. Increase of the population at risk group.

d. All of the above

What may be an unintended and unanticipated consequence of prisonization?
a. Inmates learn criminal codes of behavior
b. Prisonization may deepen and breed criminality
c. Inmates learn the culture and folkways of prison life
d. All of the above

c. High levels of appropriate assertiveness

There are some common personal characteristics of males in prison. Which of the following is NOT one of them?
a. Poor self-esteem
b. Low empathy for others
c. High levels of appropriate assertiveness
d. Distorted perceptions of the world

b. Cognitive behavioral programming

Which of the following approaches has demonstrated success in reducing reoffending?
a. Prisonization
b. Cognitive behavioral programming
c. Incarceration
d. Boot camps

c. Homosexual orientation.

All of the following reasons are why rape occurs in male prisons except:
a. Degradation of the victim.
b. Racism against the victim.
c. Homosexual orientation.
d. Humiliation of the victim

a. Robbery

Elderly inmates are more likely to have committed all of the following crimes except:
a. Robbery
b. Manslaughter
c. Sexual offenses
d. Homicide

d. 1.4 million

Approximately how many male offenders are in prison in the United States as of 2004?
a. 200,000
b. 800,000
c. 1 million
d. 1.4 million

c. Most are from rural areas

Which of the following statements is NOT true about the characteristics of male prisoners in the United States?
a. Generally undereducated
b. 2/3 belong to minority racial and ethnic groups
c. Most are from rural areas
d. Generally underemployed

d. Less than 20% had children under age eighteen.

Women in jail reported all of the following characteristics except:
a. Almost half reported physical or sexual abuse.
b. Almost half had a condition needing medical attention upon admission to jail.
c. 40% were first-time offenders.
d. Less than 20% had children under age eighteen.

b. Oklahoma

Which state leads the nation in their incarceration rate of women prisoners at 130 per 100,000?
a. Louisiana
b. Oklahoma
c. Massachusetts
d. Texas

c. Non-recidivist

All of the following are characteristics of the average women prisoner except:
a. Aged 25-34
b. Not employed at time of arrest
c. Non-recidivist
d. Black

b. Federal dollar enhancements to women's institutions

Pregnancy is an important issue in the administration of women's prisons for all of the following reasons except:
a. Lighter work assignments
b. Federal dollar enhancements to women's institutions
c. Special diets
d. Medical care

d. Allowing these women permanent release from institutions.

Women's prison are adapting to pregnant inmates in all of the following general ways except:
a. Providing classes on child development.
b. Providing family service programs.
c. Allowing the infants to stay with their mothers in prison.
d. Allowing these women permanent release from institutions.

a. Violence programs

Women seem to have different "needs" in prison than males. Which of the following is generally NOT considered one of these?
a. Violence programs
b. Family cohesion initiatives
c. Family support programs
d. Children's programs

d. Rehabilitation programming

As women age in prison, changes may have to be made in all of the following areas except:
a. Consideration of alternative sentencing, compassionate release, and community correctional centers for certain elderly inmates.
b. Addition of handrails
c. Expansion of medical treatment
d. Rehabilitation programming

c. 7%

What percentage of the total incarcerated population do women comprise?
a. 0.5%
b. 2%
c. 7%
d. 13%

d. When women commit crime, it is drug and theft related

One general conclusion can be made from the Uniform Crime Report's total arrest by gender statistic. Which of the following is this conclusion?
a. Women commit a large proportion of total violent offenses.
b. When women commit crime, it is arson-related.
c. Women are rarely arrested for crimes they commit.
d. When women commit crime, it is drug and theft related.

c. Women are in worse relationships with men.

All of the following are reasons why female crime has increased so sharply over the last 10 years except:
a. Women have more opportunity to commit crime.
b. Women are being sentenced more severely by judges.
c. Women are in worse relationships with men.
d. Women are committing more serious crime.

b. 17

The peak age for Juvenile crime is:
a. 15
b. 17
c. 16
d. 18

d. Detention

There are four major trends in the handling of juvenile offenders. Which of the following is NOT one of them?
a. Diversion
b. Decriminalization
c. Deinstitutionalization
d. Detention

d. Diversion

Which of the following is the official halting of juvenile proceedings, or a referral of the person to a treatment facility or care program? The purpose is to take the juvenile out of the juvenile court system to avoid formal contact with the court system.
a. Detention
b. Deinstitutionalization
c. Decarceration
d. Diversion

d. Deinstitutionalization

Which of the following is the movement to remove status offenders from juvenile institutions?
a. Decriminalization
b. Diversion
c. Detention
d. Deinstitutionalization

c.boot camps

Which of the following programs has NOT demonstrated effectiveness in reducing delinquent behaviors?
a. Social learning programs
b. Behavioral interventions
c. Boot camps
d. Cognitive behavioral programs

d. Age

The court determines "juvenile" status according to which of the following criteria?
a. Family situation
b. Maturity level
c. Intelligence
d. Age

d. 20%

What percentage of all murders leads to the arrest of a juvenile?
a. 1%
b. 5%
c. 9%
d. 20%

a. History of medical problems

All of the following are considered risk factors for chronic, serious, and violent delinquency except:
a. History of medical problems
b. Weak family attachment
c. Poor school performance
d. Delinquent peer groups

c. King

In the original use of "parens partriae ," who assumed responsibility for the juvenile?
a. Commonwealth
b. Queen
c. King
d. Chancery

d. The court system was originally created in New York City.

All of the following statements about the first juvenile court system are true except:
a. The juvenile court system was created in 1899
b. These children were considered "wards" of the state.
c. Neglected and dependent children were part of the juvenile court clientele.
d. The court system was originally created in New York City.

a. 1%

The insanity defense is used in _____ of all felony cases.
a. 1%
b. 10%
c. 25%
d. 48%

a. 25%

Of all the felony cases that attempt the NGRI defense, _____ is successful.
a. 25%
b. 50%
c. 75%
d. 90%

c. An offender with an IQ score lower than 69

Who is considered a "developmentally challenged" offender?
a. An offender with an extensive criminal history
b. An offender who demonstrates conduct-disordered behavior
c. An offender with an IQ score lower than 69
d. An offender from a low SES background

b. They are denied entry into rehabilitation programs.

All of the statements below, except one, describe ways that developmentally challenged offenders have difficulties in prison. Which statement does NOT describe their difficulties?
a. They are slower to adjust to prison life.
b. They are denied entry into rehabilitation programs.
c. They have more problems learning regulations and get more rule infractions.
d. They suffer sexual harassment.

d. 200 males to 1 female

What is the ratio of male to female prosecutions of sex offenses in America?
a. 150 males to 1 female
b. 100 males to 1 female
c. 50 males to 1 female
d. 200 males to 1 female

b. 1.9%

What percentage of the custody population is HIV-positive?
a. 1.3%
b. 1.9%
c. 5.6%
d. 10.2%

a. Transcarceration

Why are so many mentally ill offenders, particularly since the 1970s, in prison?
a. Transcarceration
b. Growing population of mentally ill persons in the general population
c. These offenders receive better treatment in prison than community based interventions
d. Mentally ill people commit a large proportion of crime since the 1970s

d. Treatment

Generally, the treatment of the mentally ill between the Middle Ages through the Age of Enlightenment can be described by all of the following statements except:
a. Exorcisms.
b. Separation to prevent the "contagion."
c. Burned as evil.
d. Treatment.

d. Integration into the community

America has dealt with mental illness in modern times (at least up until the 1970s) in all of the following ways except:
a. Pharmaceutical intervention
b. "out of sight, out of mind."
c. Medical experts seek a cure
d. Integration into the community

d. Drug therapies

The deinstitutionalization movement occurred because of what development?
a. Community-based treatment successes
b. Medical cures for mental illness
c. Loss of legal rights by inmates
d. Drug therapies

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set