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Study guide for test on Chapters 6, 7, and 8 in "Introduction to Criminal Justice" (13th edition) by Larry J. Siegel and John L. Worrall. Only on key terms.

Time-In-Rank System

The promotion system in which a police officer can advance in rank only after spending a prescribed amount of time in the preceding rank.

Beats

Designated police patrol areas.

Order Maintenance (peacekeeping)

Maintaining order and authority without the need for formal arrest ("handling the situation"). Keeping things under control by means of threats, persuasion and understanding.

Proactive Policing

An aggressive law enforcement style in which patrol officers take the initiative against crime instead of waiting for criminal acts to occur. For example, they stop motor vehicles to issue citations and aggressively arrest and detain suspicious persons.

Broken Windows Model

The term used to describe the role of the police as maintainers of community order and safety.

Procedural Justice

A concern with making decisions that are arrived at through procedures viewed as fair.

Vice Squads

Police units assigned to enforce morality-based laws, such as those addressing prostitution, gambling, and pornography.

Sting Operation

Organized groups of detectives who deceive criminals into openly committing illegal acts or conspiring to engage in criminal activity.

Community-Oriented Policing

Programs designed to bring police and public closer together and create a more cooperative environment between them.

Foot Patrol

Police patrols that take officers out of cars and put them on a walking beat in order to strengthen ties with the community.

Problem-Oriented Policing

A style of police operations that stresses proactive problem solving, rather than reactive crime fighting.

Hot Spots of Crime

Bars, Malls, Bus Depot, Hotels, certain apartment buildings from which a significant portion of police calls typically originate in metropolitan areas.

Gang Tactical Detail

A police unit created to combat neighborhood gang problems by targeting known offenders who have shown a propensity toward gang violence or criminal activity.

Displacement

When criminals move from an area targeted for increased police presence to another that is less well protected.

Intelligence-Led Policing

The collection and analysis of information to produce an intelligence end product designed to inform police decision making at both the tactical and strategic levels.

Tactical Intelligence

Gaining or developing information related to threats of terrorism or crime and using this information to apprehend offenders, harden targets, and use strategies that will eliminate or mitigate the threat.

Strategic Intelligence

Info about the changing nature of certain problems and threats for the purpose of developing response strategies and reallocating resources

National Criminal Intelligence Sharing Plan (NCISP)

Formal intellience sharing intiative that identifies the security and intelligence- sharing needs recognized in the wake of the 9/11 terrorist attacks

Fusion Center

A mechanism to exchange information and intelligence, maximize resources, streamline operations, and improve the ability to fight crime and terrorism by analyzing data from a variety of sources.

Internal Affairs

The police unit that investigates allegations of police misconduct.

Police Productivity

The amount of order maintenance, crime control, and other law enforcement activities provided by individual police officers and concomitantly by police departments as a whole.

Double Marginality

According to Nicholas Alex, the social burden that African American police officers carry by being both minority group members and law enforcement officers

Blue Curtain

The secretive, insulated police culture that isolates officers from the rest of society.

Cynicism

The belief that most people's actions are motivated solely by personal needs and selfishness.

Police Styles

The working personalities adopted by officers that can range from being a social worker in blue to a hard charging crime fighter

Discretion

The use of personal decision making and choice in carrying out operations in the criminal justice system.

Low-Visibility Decision Making

Decision making by police officers that is not subject to administrative review. For example, when a decision is made not to arrest someone or not to stop a speeding vehicle.

Overload Hypothesis

The theory that police workload influences discretion so that as workload increases, less time and attention can be devoted to new cases, especially petty crimes.

Demeanor

The way a person outwardly manifests his or her personality.

Police Brutality

Actions such as using abusive language, making threats, using force or coercion unnecessarily, prodding with nightsticks and stopping and searching people to harass them

Corruption

Exercising legitimate discretion for improper reasons or using illegal means to achieve approved goals.

Knapp Commission

A public body that led an investigation into police corruption in New York and uncovered a widespread network of payoffs and bribes.

Meat Eater

A term used to describe a police officer who actively solicits bribes and vigerously engages in corrupt practices

Grass Eater

A term used for a police officer who accepts payoffs when everyday duties place him or her in a position to be solicited by the public

Mollen Commission

An investigative unit set up to inquire into police corruption in New York City in the 1990s

Accountability System

A system that makes police supervisors responsible for the behavior of the officers in their command

Deadly Force

The intentional use of a firearm or other instrument resulting in a high probability of death

Nondeadly Force

Force that is unlikely to cause death or significant bodily harm.

Excited Delirium

An overdose of adrenaline that can occur in heated confrontations with the police

Impact Munitions

Less lethal weapons that are used to stun or otherwise incapacitate uncooperative suspects so they can be subdued. Ex: Rubber bullets or bean bag projectiles.

Taser

A nonlethal conducted energy device that administers a shock to an uncooperative suspect by way of an electrified dart

National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial

The nation's monument to police officers that have died in the line of duty.

Search

A government actor's infringement on a person's reasonable expectation of privacy.

Open Field

Any unoccupied or undeveloped real property outside the curtilage of a home.

Curtilage

Grounds or field attached to a house

Arrest

Occurs when a police officers takes a person into custody or deprives a person of freedom for having allegedly committed a criminal offense

Search Warrant

A written authorization from a court specifying the area to be searched and what the police are searching for.

Arrest Warrant

A warrant authorizing law enforcement officials to apprehend an offender and bring that person to court

In-Presence Requirement

A police officer cannot arrest someone for a misdemeanor unless the officer sees the crime occur. To make an arrest for a crime he did not witness, the officer must obtain a warrant.

Probable Cause

Reasonable cause for issuing a search warrant or making an arrest; more than mere suspicion.

Particularity

The search warrant must specify the place to be searched and the items to be seized.

Probable Cause Hearing

A hearing that is held to determine whether probable cause exists that he committed the crime after a warrantless arrest

Exigent Circumstances

Emergency or urgent circumstances

Hot Pursuit

A legal doctrine that allows police to perform a warrantless search of premises where they suspect a crime has been committed when delay would endanger their lives or the lives of others and lead to the escape of the alleged perpetrator.

Stop and Frisk

The situation when police officers who are suspicious of an individual run their hands lightly over the suspects outer garments to determine whether the person is carrying a concealed weapon

Search Incident to a Lawful Arrest

An exception to the search warrant rule, limited to the immediate surrounding area.

Bus Sweep

Police investigation technique in which officers board a bus or train without suspicion of illegal activity and question passengers, asking for identification and seeking permission to search their baggage.

Plain View Doctrine

Without the need for a warrant, the police may seize objects that are openly visible.

Miranda Warning

The requirement that police officers inform suspects subjected to custodial interrogation that they have a constitutional right to remain silent, the consequences of failing to remain silent, and the constitutional right to counsel.

Public Safety Doctrine

The principle that a suspect can be questioned in the field without a Miranda warning if the information the police seek is needed to protect public safety.

Exclusionary Rule

Improperly gathered evidence may not be introduced in a criminal trial

Booking

Administrative record of an arrest, listing the offenders name, address, physical description, date of birth....(personal info). Also includes photographs and fingerprinting of the offender.

Lineup

Placing a suspect in a group for the purpose of being viewed and identified by a witness

Fruit of the Poisonous Tree

Secondary evidence obtained from a search that violates the exclusionary rule.

Good Faith Exception

Exception to the exclusionary rule allowing illegally obtained evidence to be used if officers relied in good faith on an invalid warrant

Inevitable Discovery Rule

Supreme Court ruling that improperly obtained evidence can be used when it would later have been inevitably discovered by the police.

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