Heartworm's habitat for adults
right chambers of the heart and the pulmonary artery
Heartworm's habitat for microfilaria?
circulate in bloodstream
Are males or females more likely to get heartworm?
What is the larval shape of heartworm?
What is the larval movement of a heartworm?
swims in a random manner
no forward movement
How do you identify the adult stage of a heartworm?
4-12 inches long, thin, looks like dental floss
What is the distribution of heartworm?
All of US, especially eastern
What is the lifecyle of a heartworm?
What is the common name for Dirofilaria?
What is the scientific name for heartworm?
What larval stage develops in the mosquito?
L1 - L2 - L3
Where does the larval stage develop in the mosquito?
in their mouthparts
What is the lifespan of an adult heartworm?
What stage does the heartworm larva invade the heart and pulmonary artery and reach the sexual maturity?
What happens in the heartworm L4?
they remain in the tissue for approximately 2 months and then molt to immature adults and start migration to the heart
What is an occult heartworm infection?
when adult heartworms are present but mircofilaria are not in the bloodstream.
Why does occult heartworm occur?
1. worms are all the same sex
2. andibody reponse by the animal kills mircofilaria
3. Preventatives kill off mircofilaria
4. immature worms
5. cats shed low level of microfilaria
What transmits heartwomr?
What are the symptoms for a heartworm patient?
tires easy- exercise intolerance
shortness of breath
What is the prepatent period for heartworm?
What is the gold standard for diagnosing adult heartworm infections?
What are a few tests used for the diagnoses of adult heartworms?
How would a CBC help with the diagnoses of heartworm?
a rise in eosinophils and basophils
How would a chest x-ray help with the diagnoses of heartworm?
enlargement of right side of heart
How would an occult heartworm test help in the diagnoses of heartworm?
female heartworms produce an antigen.
What is a caval syndrome?
a disease caused by large numbers of worms in the specific areas of the heart.
surgical extraction may be the only option
What are the three steps for treatment of heartworms?
1. Remove the heartworms
2. Kill the circulating mircofilaria
What is the trade name for Melarsomine dihydrochloride?
When does testing begin for heartworm in dogs?
What is the tradename for Diethylocarbamazine?
What preventative medication should not be used in heartworm positive dogs?
How often do you give Filarabits?
What is the tradename for Ivermectin?
How often do you give Heartgard?
What is the tradename for Milbemycin?
What does Interceptor treat?
Heartworm, Roundworm, Hookworm, and Whipworm
What is the tradename for Moxidectin?
How often do you give Interceptor?
What is the tradename for Selamectin?
How often do you give Revolution?
How often do you give ProHeart?
What are the 2 reasons why feline heartworm is different than canine heartworm?
1. Heartowmr in cats have fewer adults than in dogs and 1/3 of infections consist of same-sex worms
2. Life span of parasite is much longer in dogs. 2-3 years in cats.
Why is the incidence of feline heartworm understated?
Because it's more common in dogs
What is aberrant migration?
Larva migrating to other areas
What is HARD?
Heartworm associated respiratory disease.
What disease is often misdiagnosed in feline heartworm patients?
asthma, allergies, allergic bronchitis
What are 2 mild symptoms associated with feline heartworm disease?
Intermittent vomiting that isn't related to eating, Vague Malise
Why is the gold standard in diagnostic testing for dogs not useful in cats?
The antigen test is not used for cats because they are more likely to have worms that are same sexed
What would the gold standard in diagnosing be for heartworm postitive cats?
Antigent test or Ultrasound
What is the scientific name for Pseduoheartworm?
Who is the host for pseduoheartworm?
Dog, monkeys are common
Where is the habitat for pseduoheartworms?
Subcutaneous tissues, possibly in peritoneal cavities
Where is the habitatit for pseduoheartworm mircofilariae?
Circulating in the blood
What is the larval movement for pseduoheartworm?
swims with direction
progressive forward movement
What is the life cycle for pseduoheartworm?
How are mircofilariae ingested?
by the intermediate host during a blood meal
Infective L3 stage is transmitted to definitive host
What is the transmition of pseduoheartworm?
Through fela, louse, and tick.
What are the symptoms for pseduoheartworm patients?
may see increases in eosiniophils
skin irritations on foot pads
What is the prepatent period for pseduoheartworm?
What is the treatment for pseduoheartworm?
none- because it's not pathogenic
How do you diagnose pseduoheartworm?
Knotts test, bloodsmear, ELISA
What is the common name for Strongyloides Stercoratlis?
Who is the host for Threadworms ?
Dogs, cats, foxes,humans
Where are the Threadworms' habitat?
What is the distribution of Threadworms ?
worldwide but is most common in southern US.
What is the life cycle for Threadworms ?
What is the transmission for Threadworms ?
Ingestion of eggs or cutaneous penetration
What are the symptoms for Threadworms patients?
Pneumonia- lung migration
Intense pruritis- skin penetration
What is prepatent period for Threadworms ?
Is Threadworms zoonotic?
How do you control Threadworms ?
How do you diagnose Threadworms ?
Fecal Float, Smear, Baermann Technique
What is the common name for Trichuris Vulpis?
Who is the host for whipworm?
Dog and fox
Where is the habitat for whipworms?
Cecum and large intestine
What is the distribution for whipworms?
What is the lifecycle for whipworms?
What is the transmission for whipworms?
ingestion of L2 egg
What are the symptoms for whipworm patients?
What is prepatent period for whipworms ?
How do you diagnose whipworms ?
How do you control whipworms?
Are whipworms zoonotic?
What is the common name for Aelurostronglus Abstrusus?
Who is the host for lungworms?
Where is the lungworm's habitat?
What is the distribution of lungworms?
What is the life cycle for Lungworms?
Indirect- 2 intermediate hosts
Describe the life cycle of a lungworm.
Larvae is coughed up, swallowed and passed in feces. A snail or slug ingests larvae, snail is ingested by mouse, burd, frog or lizard and then eaten by a cat
What are the symptoms of lungworm patients?
What is the prepatent period for lungworm?
How do you diagnose lungworm?
fecal float, baermann technique, sputum
How do you control lungworms?
prevent hunting and eating rodents
Is lungwroms zoonotic?
What is the common name for capillaria aerophilia?
Cat lungworm or bladderworm. also known as fox lungworm
Who is the host for bladderworm/lungworm?
cats but dogs and foxes can get it too
Where is the habitat for bladderworm/lungworm?
lung, some in bladder
Where is the distrubution for bladderworm/lungworm?
What is lifecycle of bladderworm/lungworm?
How is the bladderworm/lungworm transmitted?
ingestion of infected egg
What are the symptoms of bladderworm/lungworm?
not considered very pathogentic but can cause secondary problems suc as rhinitis, tracheitis, bronchitis
What is the prepatent period for bladderworm/lungworm?
How do you diagnose bladderworm/lungworm?
fecal float, urine sediment, bronchial swabs
Is bladderworm/lungworm zoonotic?