Fugitive Slave Act
It required all citizens to help catch runaway slaves (fugitives). Anyone who aided a fugitive could be fined or sent to prison. Southerners believed it would force Northerners to recognize their rights, but instead, it made them furious. After the passage of it, slaveholders stepped up their efforts to catch fugitive slaves. They even captured African Americans who were not escaped slaves and forced them into slavery.
They protested by helping runaway slaves, starting the Underground Railroad, rescue African Americans who were being pursued, free captured slaves, and buy the freedom of African Americans.
How did the North protest the law?
A New Hampshire Democrat who supprted the Fugitive Slave Act and became president. He intended to enforce the act. Important because he was an example of some one in the North who supported the Fugitive Slave Act, and he also supported the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
The Illinois senator who had forged the Compromise of 1850 had a new plan hoping to encourage the settlement of the West and to open the way for a transcontinental railroad. He proposed organizing the regions west of Missouri and Iowa as territories of Kansas and Nebraksa. He was trying to work out a plan for the north to expand that both the North and South would accept. Instead, he reopened the conflict about slavery in the territories. He knew that the South would object to having Kansas and Nebraska become free states because it would give the North the advantage in the Senate. As a result, he proposed abandoning the Missouri Compromise and letting settlers in each territory decide whether or not to allow slavery. He introduced popular sovereignty into the issue, causing even more problems.
Kansas and Nebraska
Because of their location, they seemed likely to become free states, They both lay north of the 36'30'N latitude, the line established by the Missouri Compromise as the boundary of slavery.
The idea that people living in a territory had the right to decide by voting if they slavery would be allowed there. Important because it caused many problems in Kansas (border ruffians, separate governments). Resulted in proslavery legislature in Kansas that antislavery people refused to acknowledge. As a result, a antislavery government was created, which led to violence between the two.
The protested it stringly because it would repeal the Missouri Compromise, allwoing slavery into areas that had been free for more than 30 years.
What were Northerners opinion on the Kansas-Nebraska Act?
They provided solid support for the bill because they expected it to vote for slavery when Missouri slaveholders mover there.
What were Southerners opinion on the Kansas-Nebraska Act?
To repeal the Missouri Compromise and allow the territories to have popular sovereignty (or the right to vote if wanted to be a slave or free state). Important because it opened up more areas to slavery.
Missourians who traveled in armed groups to vote in Kansas's election to be a free or slave state. Only 1,500 people lived in Kansas, but more than 6,000 of these came to vote in their election. Proslavery and antilavery groups rushed peopel out in the hopes that the more people they sent, the more likely they would to get their way. A proslavery legislature was elected as a result. But, since the idea of popular sovereignty had given the people the right to decide, antislavery people refused to accept the acts of the proslavery leislature and started their own government. Important becuase they resulted in the division is Kansas.
Term referring to the violence going on in Kansas between the antislavery legislature and the proslavery legislature. First, 800 slavery supporters attacked the antislavery capital, burning down buildings, sacking the town, and destroying newspaper offices. Antislavery supporters soon retaliated by killing 5 slavery supporters. Not until the new governor, John Geary, was appointed did the bloodshed stop.
A fervent abolitionist who seeked revenge for the attack on the antislavery capital. He did so by getting 4 of his sons and 2 other men to wait with him and kill 5 slavery supporters. Important because it showed the true hatred between the two sides, which also symbolized what was happening in the Senate.
A conflict between citizens of the same country. Newspapaers referred to the conflict in Kansas as this. Important because it showed how truly divided the people in Kansas were on the topic.
Abolitionist senator of masachusetts who delivered a speech that lashed out against proslavery forces in Kansas and that criticized proslavery senators, repeatedly attacking Andrew P. Butler. Two days later, Representative Preston Brooks walked into the Senate chamber and hit Sumner again and again over the head and shoulders with a cane. He fell unconscious and was bleeding, and he did not return to the Senate for several years. Important because this showed that the conflict in Kansas had spilled over into the Senate and showed how divided the country was.
Distant cousin of Andrew P. Butler who had been attacked in Charles Sumner's speech. He found Sumner and proceeded to beat him with his cane until he was bleeding and unconscious. Important because it showed how serious the debate on slavery was.