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Blood

1. Transports everything to all parts of the body
2. Moves through vessels (both arteries and veins)
3. Connective tissue
4. Soluble materials only seen during blood clotting

Function of blood

1. Transports; oxygen, waste, and hormones
2. Heat regulation
3. Homeostatic balance within the body system
4. Wound repair
5. Transports oxygen and carbon dioxide from respiration
6.Important in immune system / infection fighting

Structure in / of blood

1. Erythrocytes, leukocytes, plasma, platelets

Plasma

1. The liquid component of blood
2. Yellowish color made of 90% water
3. Contains dissolved substances; hormones, wastes, salts

Plasma Proteins

1. Major role-player in albumin
2. Same stuff you see in egg whites

Albumin

1. Major role in keeping water in blood, blood pressure, and wound clotting

Erythrocytes

1. Make up red blood cells
2. Have no nucleus
3. Made up of hemoglobin in blood protein that have iron in it

Hemoglobin

1. The substance in the blood specifically responsible for carrying oxygen
2. Shaped like biconcave plates, disks that are pushed inwards... these cells look like small doughnuts or barbells under the microscope... its is this shape that allows it to bind to oxygen. If the shape is altered - such as in sickle cell anemia - oxygen cannot bond and cannot carry oxygen

Sickle Cell Anemia

1. Sickle cell anemia is a disease passed down through families in which red blood cells form an abnormal crescent shape.
2. A genetic trait that is seen in black Africans. This disease is an evolutionary trait that evolved t guarantee living to and age of reproduction. Tied to malaria - Sickle Cell Anemia allows individuals too live longer. Since malaria is a deadly disease that kills in a much shorter period of time, those with sickle cell anemia slow down the process of malaria by bonding the parasite to the walls of the capillaries - while both malaria and sickle cell anemia will both kill the individual, sickle cell allows the person to live long enough to have children and carry on their genes (better than

Leukocytes

1. White blood cells
2. Defense against diseases
3. Contain nucleus and organelles
4. Can move out of the blood stream to fight infection (DIAPEDESIS)
5. Move to areas of need by responding to changes in chemical presence (positive chemotaxis)

Types of Leukocytes

1. Neutrophils
2. Eosinphils
3 Basophils
4.Lymphocytes
5. Monocytes

Blood Formation

1. Typically found on spongy bone of flat bones of skull and pelvis
2. All blood cels start from the same type of stem cell (hemocytoblast)
3.hemocytoblast in the bone marrow is hormone regulated

Erythropoietin

1. Hormone which regulates blood formation
2. Mostly produced in the kidney
3. The presence of erythropoietin cause the bone marrow to produce more red blood cells from the hemocytoblast

Homeostatic Loop of Blood Formation

1. Lower oxygen carrying capacity
2. Kidney releases erythropoietin
3. Presence of erythpoitin stimulates red bone marrow to produce more RBC
4. As RBC increases, oxygen carrying capacity increases...
5. As oxygen carrying capacity approaches adequate level, signals kidney to reduce erythropoietin release, and RBC production goes back down to original level

Blood Packing

1. Athletes removes some of their blood and replaces it with higher RBC count blood - giving them a more efficient method of transporting oxygen... this allows them to have more efficient muscle action because they are now less likely to cramp up

Hemostasis

1. The process of wound healing

Three phases of hemostasis

1. Vascular Spasm
2. Platelet plug formation
3. Blood clotting

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