ap psych chp. 8

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45 terms

all are closely related

What type of thinking is closely related to language?

Picture a specific example of that concept

Prototypes make concepts easier to understand by allowing us to

the algorithm

Though not always practical, it is the most reliable approach to solving a problem

Trying an approach successful in the past

A person's mental set tends to make him or her solve problems by

incubation effect

Allows a person to solve a problem without consciously working on it.

Can still never be sure that it is true after all cases

After scientists collect information to support theories, they

Psycholinguistics

Psychology of (process by which humans acquire, use, and understand) language

syntax

The way in which words are arranged to make phrases or sentences

Incorrectly use words they had used correctly before.

Young children who have just learned grammar rules often

thinking

the mental activity involved in understanding, processing, and communicating information

convergent thinking

thinking about only the available facts to solve a problem

heuristic

rule of thumb or shortcut, used to solve a problem

functional fixedness

tendency to think of an object as being used only for its usual purpose

deductive reasoning

reasoning in which the conclusion is true if the premises are true

visualizing the best course of action

a balance sheet may help in solving a problem by

language acquisition device

a person's inborn tendency to acquire a language is known as

semantics

the study of meaning

overregulization

applying regular rules of grammar to all, including words that do not fit the rule

combine symbols in grammatically correct way.

Most psychologist argue that chipanzes cannot truly speak language because they cannot:

into hierarchies

While people learn concepts through experience, organize by

algorithms

Specific procedure needed to solve a problem; guaranteed to work:

analogy

Solving problems by trying same solution that worked for a similar problem:

Recombination

The mental rearrangement of the elements of a problem:

inductive reasoning

Tendency to prove the hypotheses correct (known as confirmation bias) is related to:

anchoring heuristic

People make decisions based on certain ideas or standards they believe in:

all/any of the above

A morpheme generally consist of:

grammar

The word order in a language:

symbol

An object or act that stands for something else (not present)

divergent thinking

Following many lead and using free association to solve a problem

difference reduction

Problem-solving method that identifies goals and steps needed to reach them

an obstacle to solving a problem

Functional fixedness can become

premise

A basic fact, idea or statement that gives information for drawing conclusions

availability heuristic

Helps people decide using basic information available in immediate consciousness

phoneme

Basic unit of sound in a language

learning words

The beginning of the language in babies occurs when they start

during early childhood

Psychologists believe that a second language is most easily learned

concepts

Grouping of objects, events or ideas that have similar characteristics

difference reduction

Problem solving method that identifies goals and steps needed to reach them:

means-end analysis

Problem solving in which a problem is broken into parts and individually solved:

divergent thinking

Creative problem solving involves:

inductive

Reasoning that starts from particular facts to reach a general conclusion:

population that seems to apply to the problem

The representativeness heuristic helps people make decisions based on:

morpheme

Unit of meaning in a language:

try to talk about more things than they have words for

Young children often exhibit behavior of overextension in which they:

increases expertise in native language

Studies suggest bilingualism:

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