In terms of the work environment, learning:
is a change in behavior acquired through experience and knowledge acquisition
Modifying behavior so that a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus and elicits an unconditioned response defines:
A person working at a computer terminal may get lower back tension as a result of poor posture. If the person becomes aware of that tension only when the manager enters the work area, then the person may develop lower back tension at the appearance of the manager. This scenario would be an example of:
Which of the following is NOT a limitation of classical conditioning?
Unconditioned responses and unconditioned stimulus have not been connected in humans.
A form of operant conditioning that has been used successfully to shape organizational behavior is known
organizational behavior modification
The process of modifying behavior through the use of positive or negative consequences following specific behaviors is called:
Which of the following reinforcement consequences would have the most effect under OBM?
As a supervisor you decide to use positive reinforcement to increase the probability that desired job performance will be repeated. All of the following are appropriate as positive reinforcement except:
no response or feedback when employee fails to complete task on time
All of the following are strategies used to influence the consequences of behavior except:
A manager who reduces an employee's pay if the employee comes to work late and refrains from doing so when the employee is on time has:
negatively reinforced the employee's on time behavior
As an outcome for exceptional performance, Jeffery was provided the opportunity to make a highly visible presentation to the board of directors. However, Jeffery was extremely nervous and upset about the presentation. This consequence was viewed by Jeffery as:
The schedule of reinforcement that provides the least impact or incentive for performing well is known as
A colleague does not respond to the sarcastic comments of a coworker but compliments the sarcastic colleague for constructive comments. Which of the following statements are true?
The colleague used extinction and positive reinforcement.
If a random number of responses must be emitted before reinforcement occurs, it is a:
variable ratio schedule
Social learning theory is based on the belief that:
learning occurs through the observation of other people and the modeling of their behavior
An individual's beliefs and expectations about his or her ability to accomplish a specific task successfully is known as:
Which of the following is NOT considered to be one of the four sources of task-specific self-efficacy critical to the social learning theory of Albert Bandura?
The process of establishing desired results that guide and direct behavior is known as:
All of the following are generally considered to be good characteristics of work goals except:
Which of the following is NOT a major function served by goal setting?
It can result in a restriction of focus that leads to a lack of creativity, spontaneity, and flexibility.
Which of the following has not been shown to moderate the relationship between goal difficulty and task performance?
low self monitor
A prerequisite for successful goal-setting programs, such as management by objectives (MBO), is:
An important function of goal setting is:
reducing role stress associated with conflicting and/or confusing expectations
As a supervisor, you can enhance the performance of your employees by:
allowing employees to participate in goal setting
A supervisor who wants to reduce the stress associated with work within the goal-setting guidelines woul
clarify task-role expectations
Management by objectives is a goal-setting and performance-planning program originated by:
Management by objectives involves:
interaction between a superior and an employee for setting employees' goals and later evaluating performance and progress toward goal accomplishment
The process of defining, measuring, appraising, providing feedback on, and improving performance is ca
Performance appraisal is used for all of the following except:
selecting persons from a pool of job applicants
Performance feedback is more likely to lead to increased job performance when it is:
constructive and specific
A key criticism of self-evaluations is:
they have a low level of agreement with supervisory evaluations
All of the following are characteristics of 360-degree feedback except:
When combined with self-evaluations, there is a high level of agreement with supervisory evaluations.
An effective performance appraisal system will contain or display all of the following except:
The reliability of an effective performance appraisal system comes from:
insuring that evaluations from multiple sources and at different times are captured over the course of the evaluation period
Traditional organizational reward systems in the United States place value on:
Reward allocation decisions involve:
sequential decisions about which people to reward, how to reward them, and when to reward them
An informational cue indicating the degree to which a person behaves the same way in other situations is known as:
Kelley proposed that individuals make attributions based on information gathered in the form of:
consensus, distinctiveness, and consistency
Minimal effort, lack of commitment, lack of motivation, and personal problems:
are internal attributions for poor performance
The successful consequences of tri-mentoring, a formalized peer mentoring system, is based upon the recognition and importance of:
A performance-planning and goal-setting program that focuses on the supervisor-employee relationship.