Chapter 6 Consumer Behavior

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In terms of the work environment, learning:

is a change in behavior acquired through experience and knowledge acquisition

The behaviorist approach to learning assumes observable behavior is a function of:

its consequences

In the animal learning research of Pavlov, the sound of the bell was the:

conditioned stimulus

Modifying behavior so that a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus and elicits an unconditioned response defines:

classical conditioning

A person working at a computer terminal may get lower back tension as a result of poor posture. If the person becomes aware of that tension only when the manager enters the work area, then the person may develop lower back tension at the appearance of the manager. This scenario would be an example of:

classical conditioning

Which of the following is NOT a limitation of classical conditioning?

Unconditioned responses and unconditioned stimulus have not been connected in humans.

A form of operant conditioning that has been used successfully to shape organizational behavior is known

organizational behavior modification

Operant conditioning is based on the notion that behavior is a function of:

its consequences

Which of the following is a form of operant conditioning?

organizational behavior modification

The process of modifying behavior through the use of positive or negative consequences following specific behaviors is called:

operant conditioning

Which of the following reinforcement consequences would have the most effect under OBM?

money-based reinforcement

As a supervisor you decide to use positive reinforcement to increase the probability that desired job performance will be repeated. All of the following are appropriate as positive reinforcement except:

no response or feedback when employee fails to complete task on time

Reinforcement and punishment are administered through:

positive or/and negative consequences

All of the following are strategies used to influence the consequences of behavior except:

neutral consequences

A manager who reduces an employee's pay if the employee comes to work late and refrains from doing so when the employee is on time has:

negatively reinforced the employee's on time behavior

As an outcome for exceptional performance, Jeffery was provided the opportunity to make a highly visible presentation to the board of directors. However, Jeffery was extremely nervous and upset about the presentation. This consequence was viewed by Jeffery as:

negative

The schedule of reinforcement that provides the least impact or incentive for performing well is known as

fixed interval

A colleague does not respond to the sarcastic comments of a coworker but compliments the sarcastic colleague for constructive comments. Which of the following statements are true?

The colleague used extinction and positive reinforcement.

A non-response approach that weakens a behavior is known as:

extinction

If a random number of responses must be emitted before reinforcement occurs, it is a:

variable ratio schedule

Central to Bandura's social learning theory is the concept of:

self-efficacy

Social learning theory is based on the belief that:

learning occurs through the observation of other people and the modeling of their behavior

The strongest way for an employee to develop self-efficacy is to:

succeed at a challenging task

An individual's beliefs and expectations about his or her ability to accomplish a specific task successfully is known as:

self-efficacy

Which of the following is NOT considered to be one of the four sources of task-specific self-efficacy critical to the social learning theory of Albert Bandura?

intelligence quotient

Intuitors, in terms of learning, prefer:

theoretical frameworks

The process of establishing desired results that guide and direct behavior is known as:

goal setting

All of the following are generally considered to be good characteristics of work goals except:

moderately difficult

Outcome (or performance) feedback is greatly facilitated by:

quantitative goals

Which of the following is NOT a major function served by goal setting?

It can result in a restriction of focus that leads to a lack of creativity, spontaneity, and flexibility.

Which of the following has not been shown to moderate the relationship between goal difficulty and task performance?

low self monitor

An important intermediate step between goal acceptance and goal accomplishment is:

goal commitment

A prerequisite for successful goal-setting programs, such as management by objectives (MBO), is:

organizational commitment

An important function of goal setting is:

reducing role stress associated with conflicting and/or confusing expectations

As a supervisor, you can enhance the performance of your employees by:

allowing employees to participate in goal setting

A supervisor who wants to reduce the stress associated with work within the goal-setting guidelines woul

clarify task-role expectations

Management by objectives is a goal-setting and performance-planning program originated by:

Peter Drucker

Management by objectives involves:

interaction between a superior and an employee for setting employees' goals and later evaluating performance and progress toward goal accomplishment

The process of defining, measuring, appraising, providing feedback on, and improving performance is ca

performance management

The first step in the performance measurement process is:

defining performance in behavioral terms

Performance appraisal is used for all of the following except:

selecting persons from a pool of job applicants

The major function(s) of performance appraisal include:

all of these

Performance feedback is more likely to lead to increased job performance when it is:

constructive and specific

A key criticism of self-evaluations is:

they have a low level of agreement with supervisory evaluations

All of the following are characteristics of 360-degree feedback except:

When combined with self-evaluations, there is a high level of agreement with supervisory evaluations.

An effective performance appraisal system will contain or display all of the following except:

self-correcting behavior

The reliability of an effective performance appraisal system comes from:

insuring that evaluations from multiple sources and at different times are captured over the course of the evaluation period

Traditional organizational reward systems in the United States place value on:

individual performance

Reward allocation decisions involve:

sequential decisions about which people to reward, how to reward them, and when to reward them

The notion of entitlement at work is considered:

to engender passive, irresponsible behavior

An informational cue indicating the degree to which a person behaves the same way in other situations is known as:

distinctiveness

Kelley proposed that individuals make attributions based on information gathered in the form of:

consensus, distinctiveness, and consistency

Minimal effort, lack of commitment, lack of motivation, and personal problems:

are internal attributions for poor performance

An important aspect of a mentoring relationship is:

coaching and counseling

The successful consequences of tri-mentoring, a formalized peer mentoring system, is based upon the recognition and importance of:

tacit knowledge

Learning

A change in behavior acquired through knowledge acquisition.

Extinction

An attempt to weaken a behavior by attaching no consequences.

Operant conditioning

Behavior change induced by either positive or negative consequences.

Punishment

A one-week disciplinary layoff.

Positive consequences

A salary increase.

Fixed interval

Reinforcement after a specific time has elapsed.

Variable ratio

Reinforcement after a random number of responses.

Fixed ratio

Reinforcement after a fixed number of responses.

Continuous

Reinforcement following every response.

Variable interval

Reinforcement after a random time period.

Sensor

Individual who prefers analysis of data and logical explanation of problems.

Thinker

Individual who prefers specific empirical data and look for practical applications.

Goal setting

A performance-planning and goal-setting program that focuses on the supervisor-employee relationship.

Social learning theory

Process of specifying desired results.

MBO

A theory of learning that focuses on observation of others an modeling.

Performance

Task accomplishment.

Reliability

Consistency of rating across time and/or people doing the rating.

Feedback

Information provided to employee about his/her performance.

Validity

Accurate definition of job performance.

Performance appraisal

Evaluation of employee behavior.

Pay for Knowledge

Job pay set according to training and what the employee knows.

Entitlement

A work situation where the employee expects one or more performance level.

Reward

A benefit for successful job performance.

Attribution

A reference or judgment concerning an employee's behavior.

Mentoring

Generally a two-person working relationship in which one is guiding the other.

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