The adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture
Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life.
Object made by human beings, either hand-made or mass-produced
The process through which people lose originally differentiating traits, such as dress, speech particularities or mannerisms, when they come into contact with another society or culture. Often used to describe immigrant adaptation to new places of residence
A religion emphasizing the unity of all religions and peoples, teaching that all founders of the world's religions have been God's divine messengers
Observable actions or responses of humans or animals
Specific thoughts or ideas that people hold to be true
the ability to speak two languages
Religion founded in the sixth century BCE and characterized by the belief that enlightenment would come through knowledge, especially self-knowledge; elimination of greed, craving, and desire; complete honesty; and never hurting another person or animal. Buddhism splintered from Hinduism as a reaction to the strict social hierarchy maintained by Hinduism.
A philosophy of ethics, education, and public service based on the writings of Confucius and traditionally thought of as one of the core elements of Chinese culture.
The distance-controlled spreading of an idea, innovation, or some other item through a local population by contact from person to person-analogous to the communication of a contagious illness
a person descended from French ancestors in southern United States (especially Louisiana)
Cultural determinism is the belief that the culture in which we are raised determines who we are at emotional and behavioral levels. This supports the theory that environmental influences dominate who we are instead of biologically inherited traits.
the expansion and adoption of a cultural element, from its place of origin to a wider area
the multiple interactions and relationships between a culture and the natural environment
The subfield of human geography that looks at how cultures vary over space.
Heartland, source area, innovation center; place of origin of a major culture
The visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape. The layers of buildings, forms, and artifacts sequentially imprinted on the landscape by the activities of various human occupants.
the practice of judging a culture by its own standards
the process by which one generation passes culture to the next
A related set of cultural traits, such as prevailing dress codes and cooking and eating utencils
an area in which a group of people share a similar culture and language
a collection of interacting elements that taken together shape a group's collective identity
A single element of normal practice in a culture, such as the wearing of a turban
philosophical system developed by of Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events
Local or regional characteristics of a language. While accent refers to the pronunciation differences of a standard language, a dialect, in addition to pronunciation variation, has distinctive grammar and vocabulary.
From the Greek "to disperse" a term describing forceful or voluntary disposal of a people from their homeland to a new place. Originally denoting the dispersal of Jews, it is increasingly applied to other population dispersals, such as the involuntary relocation of Black peoples during the slave trade and Chinese peoples outside of Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong
Durkheim's sacred and profane
Durkheim believed that everything was a function of society, and so naturally his ideas and views on religion are from the stand point that it too is a function of society
One of the three major branches of Christianity, the Eastern Orthodox Church, together with the Roman Catholic Church, a second of the three major branches of Christianity arose out of the division of the Roman Empire by Emperor Diocletian into four governmental regions: Two western regions centered in Rome, and two eastern regions centered in Constantinople (Now Istanbul, Turkey) In 1054 CE Christianity was divided along that same line when the Eastern Orthodox Church, centered in Constantinople; and the Roman Catholic Church, centered in Rome, split
The view that the natural environment has a controlling influence over various aspects of human life, including cultural development. Also referred to as environmentalism
A religion that is particular to one, culturally distinct, group of people. Unlike universalizing religions, adherents of ethnic religions do not actively seek converts through evangelism or missionary work.
belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group
Language without any native speakers.
Cultural traits such as dress modes, dwellings, traditions, and institutions of usually small, traditional communities.
Folk Culture region
region in which many people who live in a land space share at least some of the same folk customs
the composite culture, both material and non-material, that shapes the lives of folk societies
A location based on locational and environmental circumstances as well as cultural properties.
a famous individual that revealed how time, as well as distance, affects individual human behavior and the diffusion of people and ideas.
A form of diffusion in which an idea or innovation spreads by passing first among the most connected places or peoples. An urban hierarchy is usually involved, encouraging the leap-frogging of innovations over wide areas, with geographic distance a less important influence
One of the oldest religions in the modern world, dating back over 4000 years, and originating in the Indus River Valley of what is today part of Pakistan. Hinduism is unique among the world's religions in that it does not have a single founder, single theology, or agreement on its origins
a philosophy in which interests and values of human beings are of primary importance
The term for a trait with many cultural hearths that developed independent of each other.
Indo-European language family
most common language family; languages in this family are spoken by about half the world's people; English most widely used; includes German, Slavic, Baltic, and Romance
The youngest of the major world religions, Islam is based on the teachings of Muhammed, born in Mecca in 571 CE. According to Islamic teaching, Muhammed received the truth directly from Allah in a series of revelations during which Muhammed spoke the verses of the Qu'ran (Koran), the Islamic holy book
A geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic feature occurs
Religion with its roots in the teachings of Abraham (from Ur), who is credited with uniting his people to worship only one god. According to Jewish teaching, Abraham and God have a covenant in which the Jews agree to worship only one God, and God agrees to protect his chosen people, the Jews
A set of sounds, and symbols that are used for communications.
Group of languages with a shared but fairly distant origin
group of languages with more commonality than a language family (indicates they have branched off more recently in history)
A term deriving from "Frankish language" and applying to a tongue spoken in ancient Mediterranean ports that consisted of a mixture of Italian, French, Greek, Spanish, and even some Arabic. Today it refers to a "common language" a language used among speakers of different languages for the purposes of trade and commerce
when a language breaks up into new dialects, continued isolation causes new languages to form (ex: Caucasus mountains Europe)
the study of the geographical distribution of linguistic features
a major school of Buddhism teaching social concern and universal salvation
The theory created by Karl Marx and Frederich Engels that centers on communism and its inevitability.
The art, housing, clothing, sports, dances, foods, and other similar items constructed or created by a group of people
spread of an idea through people, in which the phenomena weakens or dies out at its previous source
Belief system in which one supreme being is revered as creator and arbiter of all that exists in the universe
common use of two or more languages in a society or country
The beliefs, practices, aesthics, and values of a group of people.
rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members
In multilingual countries the language selected, often by the educated and politically powerful elite, to promote internal cohesion; usually the language of the courts and government
an artificial language used for trade between speakers of different languages
Cultural traits such as dress, diet, and music that identify and are part of today's changeable, urban-based, media-influenced western societies
One of three major branches of Christianity (together with the Eastern Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic Church). Following the widespread societal changes in Europe starting in the 1300s CE, many adherents to the Roman Catholic Church began to question the role of religion in their lives and opened the door to the Protestant Reformation wherein John Huss, Martin Luther, John Calvin, and others challenged many of the fundamental teachings of the Roman Catholic Church
an awareness of being a part of a group of people living in a culture region
Defined by geographers Robert Stoddard and Carolyn Prorak in the book Geography in America as "a system of beliefs and practices that attempts to order life in terms of culturally perceived ultimate priorities."
Sequential diffusion process in which the items being diffused are transmitted by their carrier agents as they evacuate the old areas and relocate to new ones. The most common form of relocation diffusion involves the spreading of innovations by a migrating population
One of three major branches of Christianity. the Roman Catholic Church , together with the Eastern Orthodox Church, a second of the three major branches of Christianity, arose out of the division of the Roman Empire by Emperor Diocletian into four governmental regions: two western regions centered in Rome, and two eastern regions centered in Constantinople (Now Istanbul, Turkey). In 1054 CE< Christianity was divided along that same line when the Eastern Orthodox Church, centered in Constantinople, and the Roman Catholic Church, centered in Rome, split.
An early 20th century geographer from California, shaped the field of Human Geography by arguing the cultural landscaped should be the main focus of geographic study.
Community faith in traditional societies in which people follow their shaman- a religious leader, teacher, healer, and visionary. At times, an especially strong shaman might attract a regional following. However, most shamans remain local figures
Adherents of one of the two main divisions of Islam. Also known as shiahs, the Shiites represent the Persian *Iranian) variation of Islam and believe in the infallibility and divine right to authority of Imams, descendants of Ali.
the doctrines of a monotheistic religion founded in northern India in the 16th century by Guru Nanak and combining elements of Hinduism and Islam
The variant of a language that a country's political and intellectual elite seek to promote as the norm for use in schools, government, and is recognized by other aspects of public life
A form of diffusion in which a cultural adaptation is created as a result of the introduction of a cultural trait from another place.
Adherents to the largest branch of Islam, called the orthodox or traditionalist. they believe in the effectiveness of family and community in the solution of life's problems, and they differ from the Shiites in accepting the tradition (sunna) of Muhammed as authoritative
smaller landscapes that symbolize a bigger area or category.
designs that stand for other things or ideas
a blending of two or more religious traditions
The Buddhist yana whose path is the transformation of neurotically confused emotions into their enlightened equivalents.
the way of the elders"; focuses on the earliest texts and emphasizes monastic lifestyle
The declining degree of acceptance of an idea or innovation with increasing time and distance from its oint of origin or source.
the branch of lexicology that studies the place names of a region or a language
a religion that has originality and is not modernized
Cultural borrowing that occurs when different cultures of approximately equal complexity and technological level come into close contact.
A belief system that espouses the idea that there is one true religion that is universal in scope. Adherents of universalizing religious systems often believe that their religion represents universal truths, and in some cases great effort is undertaken in evangelism and missionary work