ch 7

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1. Microorganisms require large quantities of this nutrient for use in cell structure and metabolism: A. element B. macronutrient C. water D. growth factor E. trace element

A. element B. macronutrient C. water D. growth factor E. trace element

2. Microorganisms require small quantities of this nutrient for enzyme function and maintenance of protein structure: A. element B. macronutrient C. water D. growth factor E. trace element

A. element B. macronutrient C. water D. growth factor E. trace element

3. An organic nutrient that cannot be synthesized by the organism and must be provided is called a/an: A. element. B. macronutrient. C. water. D. growth factor. E. trace element.

A. element. B. macronutrient. C. water. D. growth factor. E. trace element.

4. An important mineral ion of the cytochrome pigments of cellular respiration is: A. iron. B. zinc. C. calcium. D. magnesium. E. potassium.

A. iron. B. zinc. C. calcium. D. magnesium. E. potassium.

5. An important mineral ion that is a component of chloroplasts and stabilizer of membranes and ribosomes is: A. iron. B. zinc. C. calcium. D. magnesium. E. potassium.

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6. The term phototroph refers to an organism that: A. uses CO2 for its carbon source. B. must obtain organic compounds for its carbon needs. C. gets energy from sunlight. D. gets energy by oxidizing chemical compounds. E. does not need a carbon source.

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7. The term autotroph refers to an organism that: A. uses CO2 for its carbon source. B. must obtain organic compounds for its carbon needs. C. gets energy from sunlight. D. gets energy by oxidizing chemical compounds. E. does not need a carbon source.

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8. The term heterotroph refers to an organism that: A. uses CO2 for its carbon source. B. must obtain organic compounds for its carbon needs. C. gets energy from sunlight. D. gets energy by oxidizing chemical compounds. E. does not need a carbon source.

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9. The term chemotroph refers to an organism that: A. uses CO2 for its carbon source. B. must obtain organic compounds for its carbon needs. C. gets energy from sunlight. D. gets energy by oxidizing chemical compounds. E. does not need a carbon source.

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10. The methanogens, producers of methane gas, require environments that: A. have sunlight. B. are very acidic. C. have abundant oxygen and CO2. D. are extremely cold. E. are anaerobic with hydrogen gas and CO2.

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11. Organisms that feed on dead organisms for nutrients are called: A. saprobes. B. parasites. C. autotrophs. D. lithoautotrophs. E. phototrophs.

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12. The type of photosynthesis that does not produce oxygen: A. occurs in cyanobacteria. B. does not require CO2 as a reactant. C. occurs in certain bacteria. D. does not require sunlight. E. occurs in algae and plants.

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13. The movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration is called: A. facilitated diffusion. B. diffusion. C. active transport. D. osmosis. E. endocytosis.

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14. Diffusion of water through a semi-permeable membrane is called: A. facilitated diffusion. B. diffusion. C. active transport. D. osmosis. E. endocytosis.

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15. The movement of substances from lower to higher concentration across a semi-permeable membrane that must have a specific protein carrier and use energy is called: A. facilitated diffusion. B. diffusion. C. active transport. D. osmosis. E. endocytosis.

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16. The movement of substances from higher to lower concentration across a semi-permeable membrane that must have a specific protein carrier but no energy expenditure is called: A. facilitated diffusion. B. diffusion. C. active transport. D. osmosis. E. endocytosis.

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17. The use of energy by a cell to enclose a substance in its membrane by forming a vacuole and engulfing it is called: A. facilitated diffusion. B. diffusion. C. active transport. D. osmosis. E. endocytosis.

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18. When bacteria that are living in a freshwater stream moved to seawater, then what would happen? A. It would be in a hypotonic solution. B. It would gain water. C. It would be in a isotonic solution. D. It would shrivel. E. None of the choices mentioned above are correct.

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19. Which of the following microorganisms would find hypotonic conditions most detrimental? A. bacteria B. protozoa C. fungi D. algae E. cyanobacteria

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20. Which of the following require the cell to use ATP? A. facilitated diffusion B. diffusion C. endocytosis D. osmosis E. None of the choices are correct.

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21. Contractile vacuoles are: A. used to expel excess water from cells. B. found in bacterial cells. C. important to certain organisms in hypertonic environments. D. protein carriers in cell membranes. E. None of the choices are correct.

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22. Cultures of a bacterial species were incubated on the shelf of a refrigerator, out on a lab benchtop, on the shelf of a 37°C incubator and on the shelf of a 50°C incubator. After incubation, there was no growth at 37°C and 50°C, slight growth out on the benchtop, and abundant growth at refrigeration. What term could be used for this species? A. halophile B. mesophile C. anaerobe D. psychrophile E. capnophile

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23. Cultures of a bacterial species were incubated out on the incubator shelf, in an anaerobic jar and in a candle jar. After incubation there was moderate growth of cultures in the candle and anaerobic jars, but heavy growth of the culture on the incubator shelf. This species is a/an: A. aerobe. B. anaerobe. C. facultative anaerobe. D. microaerophile. E. capnophile.

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24. A microorganism that has an optimum growth temperature of 37°C but can survive short exposure to high temperatures is called a/an: A. extremophile. B. thermophile. C. psychrophile. D. facultative psychrophile. E. thermoduric.

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25. An organism that grows slowly in the cold but has an optimum growth temperature of 32°C is called a/an: A. extremophile. B. thermophile. C. psychrophile. D. facultative psychrophile. E. thermoduric.

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26. An organism with a temperature growth range of 45°C to 60°C would be called a/an: A. extremophile. B. thermophile. C. psychrophile. D. facultative psychrophile. E. thermoduric.

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27. All of the following could find a location in or on body tissues suitable for growth, except: A. psychrophiles. B. anaerobes. C. facultative anaerobes. D. mesophiles. E. capnophiles.

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28. A microorganism that does not have catalase or superoxide dismutase would find it difficult to live in an environment with: A. carbon dioxide. B. oxygen. C. high salt. D. temperatures above 37°C. E. high acidity.

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29. Which of the following choice is true in case of a microaerophile? A. It grows best in an anaerobic jar. B. It grows with or without oxygen. C. It needs normal atmospheric levels of oxygen. D. It requires a small amount of oxygen but won't grow at normal atmospheric levels. E. None of the choices are correct.

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30. A halophile would grow best in: A. acid pools. B. fresh water ponds. C. hot geyser springs. D. arid, desert soil. E. salt lakes.

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31. The E. coli that normally live in the human large intestines and produce vitamin K that the body uses would be best termed a _____ relationship. A. parasitic B. saprobic C. commensal D. mutualistic E. None of the choices are correct.

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32. The time interval from parent cell to two new daughter cells is called the: A. binary fission. B. growth curve. C. generation time. D. death phase. E. culture time.

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33. The phase of the bacterial growth curve in which the rate of multiplication equals the rate of cell death is the: A. lag phase. B. log phase. C. stationary phase. D. death phase. E. All of the choices are correct.

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34. The phase of the bacterial growth curve in which newly inoculated cells are adjusting to their new environment, metabolizing but not growing is the: A. lag phase. B. log phase. C. stationary phase. D. death phase. E. All of the choices are correct.

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35. In the viable plate count method, a measured sample of a culture is evenly spread across an agar surface and incubated. Each _____ represents one _____ from the sample. A. cell, cell B. cell, colony C. colony, cell D. species, colony E. generation, cell

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36. The majority of organisms live or grow in habitats between: A. pH 6 and 8. B. pH 3 and 4. C. pH 5 and 6. D. pH 7 and 9. E. pH 8 and 10.

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37. An organism that grows best at a higher CO2 tension than is normally present in the atmosphere is a(n): A. facultative anaerobe. B. aerobe. C. anaerobe. D. aerotolerant anaerobe. E. capnophile.

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38. Barophiles are microorganisms able to tolerate: A. a pH of 1 to 2. B. high solute concentration. C. high atmospheric pressure. D. high osmotic pressure. E. intense ultraviolet light.

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39. Plant roots provide various growth factors for soil bacteria, and the bacteria help fertilize the plant by supplying it with minerals. This is an example of: A. antagonism. B. commensalism. C. parasitism. D. synergism. E. mutalism.

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40. The stage in a normal growth curve when cells reach the maximum rate of cell division is the: A. lag phase. B. log phase. C. stationary phase. D. death phase. E. fast phase.

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41. The decline in growth rate during the death phase is due to all of the following, except: A. the depletion of nutrients. B. the depletion of oxygen. C. the excretion of biochemical pollutants. D. the excretion of organic acids. E. the decrease in temperature of the culture.

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42. Which of the following methods of enumerating cells is the only one to detect live cells? A. direct microscopic count B. viable plate count C. turbidity D. coulter counter E. flow cytometer

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43. If a culture starts out with 1 cell and after 4 hours there are 64 cells, how many generations have occurred? A. 4 B. 5 C. 6 D. 12 E. impossible to determine

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44. You inoculate a culture into a test tube containing broth and take it out of the incubator the next day. You see the culture is growing equally throughout the broth. You conclude the culture must be: A. aerobic. B. anaerobic. C. facultative anaerobe. D. microaerophilic. E. aerotolerant.

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45. You inoculate a culture into a test tube containing broth and take it out of the incubator the next day. You see the culture is growing at the bottom of the tube. You conclude the culture must be: A. aerobic. B. anaerobic. C. facultative anaerobe. D. microaerophilic. E. aerotolerant.

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46. Facultative anaerobes usually possess: A. catalase only. B. superoxide dismutase only. C. both catalase and superoxide dismutase. D. neither catalase or superoxide dismutase. E. alternative mechanisms for dealing with oxygen.

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