When were the Crises?
1500s and 1600s
What were the two types of the crises?
Politcal wars and religious wars
Describe the politcal wars
competition and antagonism grew as each country wanted to increase its wealth and prestige at the expense of other rival countries
What did it lead too?
shifting in the balance of power amongst the leading European countries - in the beginning Spain was the most powerful, but later England and France became the dominated Europe
Describe the Relgious wars. Who were they between? What was it a result of? Who did it include? What war did it begin?
1. Christian vs Christian
2. Result of the Reformation
3. Included Anglicans, Lutherans, Calvinists, and Protestants
4. Thirty Years War
Describe the religious wars for...
1. Netherlands and Spain
2. Spain and England
1. rebellion of Protestant Dutch from Catholic Spain
2. war between Spanish Catholic and English Protestants, HATE each other
3. civil war between Catholics and Protestants
4. civil war between Protestand Puritans and Protestant Anglicans
What are the types of monarchy?
Absolute and Limited
What is an absolute monarchy?
- king/queen has all the power (Giver of Justice)
- had Divine Right of Kings
- nothing to prevent the abuse of power
- had power to make laws, levy taxes, administer justice, etc.
What was a limited monarchy?
- the power of the monarch is limited by a constitution of by the people/a Parliament
- prevents the monarch from ruling without the consent of the people
- protects people from abuse of power
Who was the first real world power?
What did Spain do in the 1500s?
- completed Reconquista
- expelled Muslims and Jews
- Catholic uniformity
- acquired a large overseas empire as well as controlling other lands within Europe
- saw itself as the nation chosen by God to save Catholic Christianity from Protestant heretics
- led to a series of wars between Catholic Spain and Protestant cultures like the English and the Dutch
Who was Charles V?
King of Spain and HRE
- ruled from 1506-1556
- paid people to vote for him for HRE
- controlled SPain, the Low Countries, parts of Italy, parts of Austria, some German states, and the Spanish American Colonies
- absolute monarch
- outlawed Martin Luther
- signed Peace of Augsberg
- became monk
What was the Peace of Augsberg?
an agreement designed to end the fighting between Catholics and Protestant sin the German States, eache German prince culd choose which religion their state would be
Who was Philip II?
- son of Emperor Charles V
- Married to Mary Tudor
- ruled over a very powerful and wealthy Spain with gold and silver coming in from American colonies
- thought it was his duty to protect Catholics outside of his country
- "guardian of the Catholic Church"
- attacked Protestant England
Why did the Spanish power decline in the 1600s?
because Philip is so obsessed with converting people to Catholics and he doesn't have enough money to pay
Who were the two ruling families of Spain?
Hapsburgs and Burbons
What was the Spanish Armada?
a fleet of ships sent by Philip
- contained 130 ships and 20,000 men
Why did Spain invade England?
she is Protestant, they raid Spanish ships, helped Dutch rebel
What did Philip think would happen when his fleet attacked England?
he thought that God was on his side and that He was going to protect them
What actually happened?
they go to war in the very narrow English canal with big heavy ships the English set their ships on fire and send the sailing towards the Spanish ships
When was the Golden Age of Spain?
1550-1650 (reign of King Philip II)
Who was El Greco?
religious painter, big part of the Counter-Reformation, known for painting elongated figures with strange colors, the Ressurrection
Who was Diego Velazquez?
Spanish painter, painted the royal family's portraits, the court painter
Who was Miguel de Cervantes?
wrote Don Qiholte, about a man between the old and new world
Who was Sister Juana Ines de la Cruz?
poet and playwright, advocated for women
Who was the Protestant Reformation between?
French Catholics and the Huguenots
Who were Huguenots?
French Calvinists from wealthy families
Who were the two families fighting for power during the Protestant Reformation in France
Catholic Valois and Huguenot Bourbon
What/When was St. Bartholemew's Day Massacre?
August 14, 1572
there was a wedding going on in Paris and Henry of Navarre, who is a Bourbon, was marrying Margret of Valois, their families are rivals. The marraige was supposed to bring peace between the Catholics and the Huguenots. The Queen/Mother of the bride, Katherine da Medici, orders to kill all the Huguenots. It representeda complete break down of France
Who was Henry of Navarre?
- first Bourbon monarch - forced to convert to Catholicism, he is assassinatedin 1610 by a crazy Catholic because he thought that Henry should be making all the Huguenots convert to Catholicism, stabbed, popular,
What is the Edict of Nantes?
What did the French monarhy turn into during the 1600s-1700s?
- monarchs claim divine right of kings, no one challenges their authority to make laws, levy taxes, administer justice
What was the Estates General?
same idea as the English Parliament, but never does anything
Who was Louis XIII(13th)?
- came to power at age 9
- his father was Henry IV and his mom was Maria de Medici, who ruled until he came of age
- married Anne of Austria, Hapsburg
- gets France involved with the 30 years war
- appointed Cardinal Richelieu
Who was Cardinal Richelieu?
Louis XIII's cheif advisor
- his main goal was to make the king's authority
- manipulated everything Louis does
- wanted to get rid of Huguenots
Who was Louis XIV(14th)?
- came into power when he was 5
- his mom, Anne of Austria, ruled for him
- appointed Cardinal Jules Mazarin to advise
- went into hiding as a child
- scared pysychologically due to a near drowning experience
Who was Cardinal Jules Mazarin?
- very much like Richelieu
- advised Louis XIV
- restricts power of the nobles even further
- tries to make Louis XIV absolute monarch
- disliked by the people of France
- refered to himself as the "Sun king"
- persecuted the Huguenots revoked the Edict of Nantes
- built the Palace of Versailles
Why did he refer to himself as the Sun King?
Because everything revolves around the sun
Describe the Palace of Versailles?
- originally a small hunting lodge
- took 30 years to build
- cost 5 million dollars
- 36,000 workers built it
- 1,400 fountains
- 2,000 rooms
- 25,000 full grown trees planted
- 15,000 acres of gardens and hunting ground
- lavish decoration
- hung the Mona Lisa in his bedroom
- hall of mirrors
- housed 10,000 people (his court and their family)
- had spies
- lots of parties
How did Louis XIV pay for Versailles and his lavish lifestyle?
Jean Baptiste Colbert did it for him
Who was Jean Baptiste Colbert?
- economic/finance minister to Louis XIV
- stimulates trade and encouraging industry
- developed France's economy
- created Mertile economy
What were Louis XIV's successes?
ruled for 72 years
- built up the French military from 70,000 to 200,000 men
- created a French culture that replaced the Renaissance style that had dominated Europe for over 100 years
What were Louis XIV failures?
- fought in four costly wars to gain power and land for France and glory for himself
- War of Spanish Succession
- persecuted Huguenots
- outlived his sons and grandsons
- left the throne bankrupt
Describe the War of Spanish Succession
when the Spanish king dies without an heir and it is the end of the Spanish Hapsburg line. Three powerful families claim that they should get the throne. They are all fighting over who is the closest relative. Louis XIV kinda wins ended by the Treaty of Utrecht and starts the Bourbon line
What was the Treaty of Utrecht?
said that Louis can't have the throne but his grandson gets the throne, but Spain and France can't be ruled by the same person at the same time
Who was in the Tudor dynasty? (in order)
Henry VII - comes to power when he marries a York, during the war of Roses
Henry VIII - makes the Anglican Church
Edward VI - 1st and only son of Henry 8th, sick, dies young
"Bloody" Mary - Catholic, not popular, daughter of Henry 8th
Elizabeth I - daughter of Henry 8th, popular, Protestant, strongest of the Tudor monarchy
Describe the English monarchy
popular and powerful, good relationship with Parliament, led England to be a world power, mostly Protestant
Who was Elizabeth I?
- strong, intellegent, moderate, cautious, self-confident
- good relationship with Parliament
- supporter of the arts and exploration
- modified the Anglican Church to make it more Catholic
- never married
- was almost killed
- supports the Huguenots rebel against thw Catholic French monarch and the Dutch Protestants against Dutch Catholics
- died without an heir
- ended the Tudor dynasty
What happens when the Tudor dynasty ended?
the throne went James I(Stuart), they don't get along with Parliament, want an absolute monarch, believed in the Divine Right of Kings, unpopular
What were the religious problems in England?
- Split within Protestantism
- Majority was Anglican but strong, local minority Puritan
- Puritians thought Anlicanism was too close to Catholicism and wanted to purify it
Who were the Puritans?
strict Calvinists, members of Parliament, just underneath the nobility, but were still commoners, simliar to the Huguenots
Describe James I
James of Scotland
- first Stuart king of England
- disliked by Scotland, unpopular
- discriminated against the Puritans
- clashed with Parliament
Describe Charles I
- son of James I
- believer in the Divine Right and absolute monarchy
- disliked Puritans and Parliament
- Signed Petition of Rights
- Parliament made his life miserable
What was the Petition of Rights?
Charles led his troops into the House of Commons but leaders escaped out a back dorr to raise their own army. Marking the beginning of the English Civil War
- it restricted the monarchy, prevent king form raising taxes without the consent of Parliament, he signs it and ignores it
What happened in the English Civil Wat