Process energy between photosynthese & respiration
2 basic ways to breakdown molecules for energy
(1) Fermentation - absence of O2
(2) Cellular Respiration - presence of O2 (chief product ATP)
Phosphate group, Ribose, Adenine
Energy of ATP Release by...
Hydrolysis of phosphodiester bonder
-ATP transfers energy to other molecules by this process
-Addition of a phosphate group (Pi)
ATP & Cellular Work (3)
(1) Mechanical work - ATP phosphorylates motor proteins
(2) Transport work - ATP Phosporylates transport proteins
(3) Chemical work -ATP Phosphorylates key reactants
Phosphorylation cases a change in...
conformation of proteins
-may activate of deactivate
Endergonic, Exergonic and Couple reactions
Endergonic reaction - Delta G is positive, reaction is not spontaneous
Exergonic reaction: Delta G is negative, reactions are spontaneous
Couple reactions: Overall delta G is negative
Reactions are spontaneous
Allows organisms to perform work (active transport, endergonic rxns) by coupling to a process that results in a net decrease in free energy
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) - chief molecule in energy coupling.
How is ATP Made?
-the energy to make ATP comes from the oxidation of food molecules.
-transfer of electrons (H atoms) from higher free energy to lower free energy
-how ATP obtains its energy
The energy release in Redox Reactions is stored in...
-Carbon-Carbon and Carbon-Hydrogen bonds
-Photosynthesis creates these bonds.
controlled oxidation of glucose
Electron acceptors - NAD+, ETC, Final acceptor O2
-an electron intermediary
-transfers electrons (in the form of H-atoms) from high energy molecules ot the ETC
Three phases of Respiration
(1) Gylcolysis - puruvate, ATP, NADH produced
(2) Krebs cycle - ATP, NADH, FADH2 produced
(3) ETC & Oxidative Phosphorylation - ATP produced
NET RXN -
INPUT - 1 Glucose, 2 NAD+, 2 ADP, 2 Pi
OUTPUT - 2 pyruvate, 2 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 H2O
ATP produced by substrate-level phosphorylation
NADH converted into 3 ATP in the ETC
ATP is made during glycolysis & the Krebs Cycle via .....
Pyruvate. Its fate depends on presence/absence of oxygen
Phases of Glycolysis (2)
(1) Energy Investment - begins with using 2 ATO
(2) Energy Payoff 4 ATP produced
NET - 2 ATP
Feedback Inhibition & ATP
-important process by which metabolic pathways are regulated
-ATP works as a feedback inhibitor of phosphofructokinase
Key enzyme in glycolysis