Antigen processing and presentation
is a way for a cell to give information about its activities.
Why would a body cell that is not a phagocyte need to present antigens?
Non-phagocytic body cells can become infected with a virus
How do phagocytes communicate to other cells what they have captured?
They present antigens from engulfed foreign cells
Which of the following best characterizes clonal selection?
The production of identical B cells producing the same antibody
An antigen that is potent enough to activate a B cell on its own is known as
What is produced by the process of clonal expansion?
Plasma cells and memory B cells
Based on the animation, T cells recognized the antigen displayed by what protein of the B cell?
How can a sufficient humoral immune response occur if a plasma cell only lives for a few days?
Each plasma cell can produce up to 2000 antibodies every second
What is apoptosis?
The process of programmed cell death
What is the function of the CD8 receptor?
Bind to MHC molecules
What is the fate of activated cytotoxic T-cells?
They proliferate into a clone of cells specific to the same antigen; some of these cells then differentiate into long-lived memory T-cells, while others mature to attack infected cells
Which molecule triggers apoptosis?
Which event happens first during cytotoxic T-cell activation?
CD8 binds to MHC molecules of infected cells
Which receptor on the helper T-cell recognizes the specific antigen from an antigen-presenting cell?
TH2 cells produce cytokines that activate
Which proteins on the antigen-presenting cell are recognized by the helper T-cell?
When do helper T-cells develop into TH1 or TH2 cells?
After proliferation into a clonal population
Natural killer cells are activated by
Phagocytosis is a process for engulfing large particles (>1μm). Which feature of antibodies will help to make particles larger, therefore enhancing phagocytosis?
The flu virus mutates fairly frequently. Its adhesive proteins change such that we have different "strains" of influenza each year. When a particular flu virus mutates such that its adhesive proteins change, which function of antibodies is disrupted?
__________________ stimulated with ___________ differentiate into __________, which secrete antibodies into the bloodstream.
B-cells, antigen, plasma cells
Includes cilia, mucous, membranes, dendritic cells
Immunological response brought about by antibody production
Immunological response that kills infected host cells
Immature B cells
Uses BCRs to regognize epitope. 1st step in clonal selection
Phagocytes that engulf anything foreign. Eventually display epitope to helper T-cells isng MHC 1 or 2
Lymphocytes that activate B cells and CTLs
Differentiated B cells that are stored in lymph nodes to provide protection against future infections by the same pathogen
produce and secrete antibodies
Kills infected host cells