Eukaryotic Pathogenic Microbes and Metabolism of Microorganisms

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chitin layer, B-glucan layer, mannoprotein layer

Name three elements of fungal cell wall structure. (inside to out)

Chitin Layer

Which fungal cell wall later is a polymer mainly of unbranched chains of N-acetyl-glucoasmine?

B-glucan layer

Which fungal cell wall layer? Most of the wall strength is due to fibers of this interwoven between other macromolecules.

Mannoprotein layer

Which fungal wall layer? Heavily glycosylated mannose-containing glycoproteins?

Yeast, Filamentous, Dimorphic

What three classifications of fungal based on morphology.

yeast

What divides through budding?

Filamentous

What forms hyphae?

Dimorphic

What is the switch between different growth morphologies depending on environment.

yeast infection that is non pathogenesis

Explain Candida Albicans

becomes pathogenic mold

pH~7 (Candida Albicans)

non pathogenic

pH~5 (Candida Albicans)

asymmetrical

When budding takes place, is it symmetrical or asymmetrical?

superficial mycoses and deep mycoses

What are two types of fungus classification based on infection type?

internal tissues and organs (Histoplasma capsulatum)

What are examples of deep mycoses?

on body surfaces (Tinea and Candida)

What are examples of superficial mycoses?

Ringworm/athletes foot

What is Tinea?

vaginal/oral yeast

What is Candida?

Takes in water, fuses with cell membrane and releases water out and repeats

Describe ohw the contractile vacule works in protozoa.

microscopic, eukaryotic, non photosynthetic, unicellular or multicellular with no tissue development, no cell wall

What are the 5 characteristics of protozoa?

Eukaryotic, multicellular or multinucleate, chitin=cell wall, growth of thread-like filaments (hyphae), decomposers, asexual reproduction via spores

What are 6 characteristics of microscopic pathogenic fungi?

Flagellates and ciliates

What is the classification of protozoa based on type (movement)?

Absorb nutrients and motility by one or several long flagella

Describe flagellates.

Trichomonas vaginalis and giardia lamblia

What are two examples of flagellates?

a vaginal STD

What is Trichomonas vaginalis?

Diarrhea

What does giardia lamblia cause?

injest food into oral groove and motility by cilia

Describe ciliates.

Balantinium

What is an example of a ciliate?

Amoebae and sporozoa

Classification of protozoa based on nutrients.

Ingestion of food by phagocytosis and motility by pseudopodia

Describe an Amoebae.

Entamoebae histolytica ("bloody poop")

What is an example of an Amoebae

Absorbsion of nutrients and reproduction by spore formation

Describe a sporozoa.

Plasmodium falciparum

What is an example of a sporozoa?

Chemoheterotrophic: Carbon source and energy source

Bacteria are _______ and have what two major nutrient sources?

organic molecules

Small metabolic breakdown products of macromolecules. ex. Sugars, amino acids, fatty acids, and nucleotides

exoenzyme secretion, breakdown of macromolecules, transport of small metabolites inside via permeases

What are three parts of nutrient acquisition in bacteria?

splits glucose GC into 2 pyruvate 3C, universal energy-yielding pathway and produces 2ATPs/glucose

What are the three important things that occur during glycolysis?

NAD+, Fermentation and respiration

Glycolysis requires a 2nd pathway to regenerate _________.

regeneration of NAD+, no O2 utilized, no ATP made

Describe fermentation.

Lactic Acid and Alcohol Fermentation

What are two common examples of fermentation.

regeneration of NAD+, O2 can be utilized, and ATP made

What are 3 basic facts of respiration?

Begins with pyruvate, oxidizes it to CO2, produces 2 ATPs and produces 8 NADH and 2 FADH2

Describe the Kreb's/Citric Acid cycle part of respiration.

Harvests energy stored in NADH and FADH2 and produces lots of ATP

Describe the Electron Transport Chain part of Respiration.

Allosteric control and turns on/off enzymes

Regulation of Enzyme Activity is under _______ which ________.

off

Does an allosteric inhibitor turn on or off enzymes?

Feedback inhibition

In a process known as ________, the allosteric regulators shut down at enzyme #1.

If a gene product is not needed, transcription is blocked and if a gene product is required, transcriptional block is inhibited

Explain Transcriptional control of gene expression in the regulation of enzyme synthesis.

E. coli

Ex. Gene expression of the lac operon in _______.

Regulatory genes and Structural genes

What are two components of the lac operon?

Turns transcription of structural genes on and off

Describe the function of the regulatory genes in the lac operon.

Synthesized as one mRNA that codes for multiple proteins (operon) and codes for proteins that are enzymes

Describe the role of structural genes in the lac operon.

1. Transport lactose into the cell 2. break down lactose to simple sugars 3. allows lactose to be utilized as a carbon and energy source

How do the structural genes code for proteins that are enzymes?

mRNA

When no lactose is present, the repressor binds to the operator when lactose is absent and goes to _______ to be produced

Degradation enzymes and Synthetic enzymes

What are two types of repressor contained operons?

metabolic induced gene expression (lac operon)

What is a degradation enzyme?

metabolic blocks gene expression (trp operon)

What is a synthetic enzyme?

Plasma membrane or plasmalemma

Below the fungal cell wall lies the ________, or ________.

neutrophils

________ can play a major role in controlling the establishment of invading fungi.

intracellular parasites or extracellular parasites

Protozoa infect body tissues and organs as what?

False

T or F: Protozoa are most pathogenic in the old?

small size, lack of nucleic acid genome, extreme resistance to heat and disinfectants, slow replication, can't be cultured in vitro, do not elicit immune responses

Describe 6 characteristics of pirons.

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