chitin layer, B-glucan layer, mannoprotein layer
Name three elements of fungal cell wall structure. (inside to out)
Which fungal cell wall later is a polymer mainly of unbranched chains of N-acetyl-glucoasmine?
Which fungal cell wall layer? Most of the wall strength is due to fibers of this interwoven between other macromolecules.
Which fungal wall layer? Heavily glycosylated mannose-containing glycoproteins?
Yeast, Filamentous, Dimorphic
What three classifications of fungal based on morphology.
What divides through budding?
What forms hyphae?
What is the switch between different growth morphologies depending on environment.
yeast infection that is non pathogenesis
Explain Candida Albicans
becomes pathogenic mold
pH~7 (Candida Albicans)
pH~5 (Candida Albicans)
When budding takes place, is it symmetrical or asymmetrical?
superficial mycoses and deep mycoses
What are two types of fungus classification based on infection type?
internal tissues and organs (Histoplasma capsulatum)
What are examples of deep mycoses?
on body surfaces (Tinea and Candida)
What are examples of superficial mycoses?
What is Tinea?
What is Candida?
Takes in water, fuses with cell membrane and releases water out and repeats
Describe ohw the contractile vacule works in protozoa.
microscopic, eukaryotic, non photosynthetic, unicellular or multicellular with no tissue development, no cell wall
What are the 5 characteristics of protozoa?
Eukaryotic, multicellular or multinucleate, chitin=cell wall, growth of thread-like filaments (hyphae), decomposers, asexual reproduction via spores
What are 6 characteristics of microscopic pathogenic fungi?
Flagellates and ciliates
What is the classification of protozoa based on type (movement)?
Absorb nutrients and motility by one or several long flagella
Trichomonas vaginalis and giardia lamblia
What are two examples of flagellates?
a vaginal STD
What is Trichomonas vaginalis?
What does giardia lamblia cause?
injest food into oral groove and motility by cilia
What is an example of a ciliate?
Amoebae and sporozoa
Classification of protozoa based on nutrients.
Ingestion of food by phagocytosis and motility by pseudopodia
Describe an Amoebae.
Entamoebae histolytica ("bloody poop")
What is an example of an Amoebae
Absorbsion of nutrients and reproduction by spore formation
Describe a sporozoa.
What is an example of a sporozoa?
Chemoheterotrophic: Carbon source and energy source
Bacteria are _______ and have what two major nutrient sources?
Small metabolic breakdown products of macromolecules. ex. Sugars, amino acids, fatty acids, and nucleotides
exoenzyme secretion, breakdown of macromolecules, transport of small metabolites inside via permeases
What are three parts of nutrient acquisition in bacteria?
splits glucose GC into 2 pyruvate 3C, universal energy-yielding pathway and produces 2ATPs/glucose
What are the three important things that occur during glycolysis?
NAD+, Fermentation and respiration
Glycolysis requires a 2nd pathway to regenerate _________.
regeneration of NAD+, no O2 utilized, no ATP made
Lactic Acid and Alcohol Fermentation
What are two common examples of fermentation.
regeneration of NAD+, O2 can be utilized, and ATP made
What are 3 basic facts of respiration?
Begins with pyruvate, oxidizes it to CO2, produces 2 ATPs and produces 8 NADH and 2 FADH2
Describe the Kreb's/Citric Acid cycle part of respiration.
Harvests energy stored in NADH and FADH2 and produces lots of ATP
Describe the Electron Transport Chain part of Respiration.
Allosteric control and turns on/off enzymes
Regulation of Enzyme Activity is under _______ which ________.
Does an allosteric inhibitor turn on or off enzymes?
In a process known as ________, the allosteric regulators shut down at enzyme #1.
If a gene product is not needed, transcription is blocked and if a gene product is required, transcriptional block is inhibited
Explain Transcriptional control of gene expression in the regulation of enzyme synthesis.
Ex. Gene expression of the lac operon in _______.
Regulatory genes and Structural genes
What are two components of the lac operon?
Turns transcription of structural genes on and off
Describe the function of the regulatory genes in the lac operon.
Synthesized as one mRNA that codes for multiple proteins (operon) and codes for proteins that are enzymes
Describe the role of structural genes in the lac operon.
1. Transport lactose into the cell 2. break down lactose to simple sugars 3. allows lactose to be utilized as a carbon and energy source
How do the structural genes code for proteins that are enzymes?
When no lactose is present, the repressor binds to the operator when lactose is absent and goes to _______ to be produced
Degradation enzymes and Synthetic enzymes
What are two types of repressor contained operons?
metabolic induced gene expression (lac operon)
What is a degradation enzyme?
metabolic blocks gene expression (trp operon)
What is a synthetic enzyme?
Plasma membrane or plasmalemma
Below the fungal cell wall lies the ________, or ________.
________ can play a major role in controlling the establishment of invading fungi.
intracellular parasites or extracellular parasites
Protozoa infect body tissues and organs as what?
T or F: Protozoa are most pathogenic in the old?
small size, lack of nucleic acid genome, extreme resistance to heat and disinfectants, slow replication, can't be cultured in vitro, do not elicit immune responses
Describe 6 characteristics of pirons.