For ACL or PCL injury. Pull tibia forward/push backward with knee in 30 degrees flexion.
Anterior drawer test
For ACL or PCL injury. Apply anterior force/posterior force to tibia with knee in 90 degrees flexion.
Causes of patellofemoral pain
-Malalignment of limb. Can involve dislocation of patella, increased Q angle, tight quadriceps or hamstring.
-Poorly localized anterior knee pain with positive theater sign.
Patellofemoral pain treatment
Strengthening or electrical stimulation of vastus medialis obliquus, stretching tight muscles.
Provocative twisting maneuver to test for meniscal tear.
Rotation test to test for mensical tear.
Most common areas for spine fracture
Major concern when knee is dislocated
Best place for knee injection
Result of femoral anteversion
Femoral anteversion results in internally rotated hip, internally rotated tibia, flat feet, valgus heels.
Osgood Schlatter disease
Pain at insertion of patellar tendon on tibial apophysis; cause of anterior knee pain in children and adolescents.
Causes of meniscal tears
Signs of mensical tear
Knee pain and tenderness on joint line on affected side.
Signs of cruciate ligament tear
Swelling. No pain usually.