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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Spinal Nerve Branches: MENINGEAL BRANCH
  2. Protective Coverings of the Spine
  3. External Anatomy of Spinal Cord: TWO ENLARGEMENTS
  4. External Anatomy of Spinal Cord: SPINAL CORD
  5. Spinal Nerve Branches: RAMI COMMUNICANTES
  1. a - from an exterior view of the spinal cord, two enlargements can be seen:
    1.) Cervical Enlargement - is the superior enlargement that extends from C4-T1. Nerves to and from the upper limbs arise from this enlargement.
    2.) Lumbar Enlargement - is the inferior enlargement, extends from T9-T12. Nerves to and from the lower limbs arise from here.
  2. b - these are components of the autonomic nervous system(ANS)
  3. c - roughly cylindrical, is flattened slightly anteriorly and posteriorly.
    - extends from the medulla oblongata to the sue the superior border of the 2nd lumbar vertebrae.
    -also known as a mass nerve tissue located in the vertebral canal from which 31 pairs of spinal nerves originate.
  4. d - the first line of defense are the skull and vertebral column. vertebral column surrounds spinal cord providing as strong protective cases.
    - second line of defense is the Meninges, which are 3 protective membranes that lie b/w the bony encasement and nervous tissue.
    - Finally, central nervous tissue "floats" in Cerebrospinal Fluid, which cushions both the brain and spinal cord.
  5. e - this branch reenters the vertebral cavity/canal through the invertebral foramen and supplies the vertebrae, vertebral ligaments, blood vessels of the spinal cordand meninges.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. - this nerve supplies the muscles on the posterior aspect of the arm and forearm.
  2. - these reflexes involve contraction of skeletal muscles.
  3. - this nerve supplies the deltoid muscles and teres minor muscles.
  4. - motor output to skeletal muscles travels down the spinal cord in two types of descending pathways:
    1.) Direct
    2.) Indirect
  5. - these are clusters of neuronal cell bodies, as functional groups.
    *Sensory Nuclei - receive input from receptors via sensory neurons.
    *Motor Nuclei - provide output to effector tissues via motor neurons

5 True/False questions

  1. Meninges: ARACHNOID MATER- this is the middle meninx(meninges), and is an avascular covering.
    - is connective tissue that resembles a spider webs arrangement of collagen fibers and some elastic fibers.
    - deep to Dura Mater.
    *Subdural Space - is a space b/w dura mater and arachnoid mater, which contains interstitial fluid.


  2. Brachial Plexus: ULNAR NERVE- this nerve supplies the muscles on the posterior aspect of the arm and forearm.


  3. Internal Anatomy of Spinal Cord: LATERAL GRAY HORNS- these horns are b/w the anterior and posterior gray horns.
    - are present only in the thoracic, upper lumbar, and sacral segments of the spinal cord.
    - contain the cell bodies of autonomic motor nuclei that regulate activity of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands.


  4. The Major Plexuses: CERVICAL PLEXUS- the roots of (anterior rami) of spinal nerves L4-L5 & S1-S4 form this plexus.
    - this plexus supplies the buttocks, perineum, and lower limbs.
    - the largest nerve in the body, the Sciatic Nerve, arises from this plexus, also the Pudendal nerve.
    *more info on Pg 602-603


  5. Spinal Nerve Branches: RAMUS- the spinal nerve trunk runs for a short distance before branching into two large branches and a variable series of smaller branches, each large branch is called a??
    -this branch follows a specific course to different peripheral regions.
    -the 2 larges branches are:
    1.) Anterior (ventral) Ramus
    2.) Posterior (dorsal) Ramus


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