What is arthritis
an umbrella term for over 100 conditions characterized by inflammation of a joint
What is Range of motion
the movement limits of a specific joint or group of joints
What is Relaxin
a hormone in pregnant women that can result in more flexible joints
What is a sit and reach test
test that measures flexibility of your lower back, hip, and hamstring muscles.
WHat is Static stretching
stretching characterized by slow and sustained muscle lengthening. Going slow and holding it.
What is PNF
- (proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation) enhanced by the voluntary contraction of the targeted muscle group or contraction of opposing muscles.
What is Dynamic stretching
characterized by controlled, full range of motion movements that mimic exercise session movements
What is Ballistic stretching
bouncing jerky movements and momentum to increase range of motion.
• Core muscles- back, abdominal hip, gluteal, pelvis, pelvic floor, and lateral trunk.
Essential fat of women???
• Men need a minimum of 3% essential body fat. Women need significantly more (12 % essential body fat) because of reproductive-system-related fat deposits in their breasts, uterus, and elsewhere
What % of essential fat do women need?
Childhood obesity rates???
• From 1999 to 2004, the proportion of overweight U.S. children and adolescents increased from 14% to 17%, significantly increasing their risk for diseases in adulthood
Define Body composition
the relative amounts of lean tissue and fat tissue in your body.
Define Essential fat
Fat necessary for normal body functioning (including in the brain, muscles, nerves, lungs, heart, and digestive and reproductive systems).
Pound of fat----# of calories
One gram of fat delivers 9 calories
One gram of fat delivers how many calories?
One gram of fat delivers 9 calories
Define Storage Fat
Nonessential fat stored in tissue near the body's surface.
measures skinfold thickness
Define Bod pod
(Air Displacement) egg shaped chamber that uses air displacement to determine total body volume, total body density, and percent body fat. Used with other measures for a full assessment.
(Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis) Measures resistance of tissues to electrical currents. Accuracy depends on machine quality and participant cooperation.
Benefits of a good diet
•Helps sustain desirable body mass and weight and helps keep your fat to lean ratios within a recommended range. Also reduces the risk of chronic illnesses.
•Help alleviate feelings of stress and depression
•Can act as a preventive medicine, helping to avoid frequent colds and infections and the effects of vitamin deficiency.
•8% of college students eat their recommended amount of veggies per day
•Poor personal habits and attitudes are why students each so bad
•1/3 of calories, chips cookies donuts candy alcohol
Proteins---functions and source.
•Biological molecules composed of amino acids.
oProtein heals- Bone muscle skin and blood cells
oThe "building block" of bodily structure and function.
What does protein heal?
Bone muscle skin and blood cells
Fiber---types and sources.
•Indigestible carbohydrates that speed the passage of partially digested food through the digestive tract. (Helps control appetite and body weight by creating a feeling of fullness without adding calories.)
What is Insoluble fiber?
speeds the passage of foods and reduces some bacterial enzymes. (Whole grains fruits and veggies)
What is Soluble fiber?
attaches to water molecules and helps lower blood cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular disease.
What is Glycemic Index?
measures how foods raise blood sugar levels. Dietary fiber can help you avoid eating more high-sugar foods.
Fats ---types and sources.
• Saturated, unsaturated, mono- and polyunsaturated, and trans fats (partially hydrogenated).
butter, beef fat and lard (unhealthy, and those high in mono- and polyunsaturated fats are healthier. (Stays solid at room temperature, risk of heart disease)
can be even worse than saturated fats on health. (Used to maintain shelf life) Margarines and shortenings
olive oil, canola oil
corn oil, safflower oil
usually a liquid oil
Define Physical Fitness
•The ability to perform moderate to vigorous
levels of activity without undue fatigue.
oMeasured in MET levels (metabolic equivalents)
• Lifestyle/light (< 3 METS)
• Moderate (3-6 METS)
• Vigorous (6+ METS)
o Measured in MET levels (metabolic equivalents)
•Lifestyle/light (< 3 METS)
•Moderate (3-6 METS)
•Vigorous (6+ METS)
Deliver energy in quickly useable forms. Carb made up of one or two sugar subunits. Glucose has one subunit and table sugar has two. (Common in whole, unprocessed foods.)
Deliver "timed-release" energy. Made up of long chains of sugar molecules. (Found in grains, cereals, fruits, vegetables, and root plants.)
Effects of weight training in women
•Women who do regular resistance training rarely look heavily muscled
•Although the benefits of weight training are the same for both sexes, several of the advantages are especially appealing to women based on other life and health issues. These benefits include:
oStronger bones and better prevention of osteoporosis
oReduced body fat and greater ability to control body weight
oImproved stamina and decreased fatigue
oBetter sleep and less insomnia
oIncreased self-confidence, body image, and sense of well-being
Benefits of regular resistance training
•Increases strength, increases muscular endurance, improves body composition, weight-management, and body image, Strengthens bones and protects against injury, Helps maintain functioning with aging, Reduces cardiovascular disease risk, Enhances sports performance.
Advantages of stability balls.
•Also called Swiss, fitness, or exercise balls
•Have various uses for muscular fitness, endurance, and balance.
•The ball exerciser must use core trunk muscles to counteract the natural use core trunk muscles to counteract the natural instability of the ball, which enhances overall body function
Define Plyometric exercise
Plyometrics mimic quick, explosive sport actions.
oUsed more by athletes
oSpeed and agility drills.
Support yourself in a push-up position (from your knees or feet) by contracting your trunk muscles so that your neck, back, and hips are completely straight. Place hands slightly wider than shoulder width apart. Slowly lower your body down toward the floor, being careful to keep a straight body position. Your elbows will press out and back as you lower to a 90-degree angle. Press yourself back up to the start position. Be careful not to let your trunk sag in the middle or your hips life up during the exercise. Continually contract the abdominals to keep a strong, straight body position.