Biology - Chapter 9A - Classification

28 terms by ldryer Plus

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For Biology I Students at Christian Life School

Why do scientists classify organisms?

For convenience; for accuracy and uniformity

Taxonomy

The science of classifying organisms into orderly groups based on their similarities

Taxonomist

A scientist who specializes in the classification of organisms and helps identify and name them

Aristotle

He made the first attempts at classifying organisms.

Carolus Linnaeus

He is known as the "Father of Taxonomy"

Taxon

A category into which related organisms are placed

Eight basic levels of Classification (in order from largest to smallest)

Domain
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species

Domain

A new classification category that is larger than a kingdom

Archaea

The domain that includes the kingdom Archaebacteria

Bacteria

The domain that includes the kingdom Eubacteria

Eukarya

The domain that includes the kingdoms Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia

Characteristics of the Kingdom Archaebacteria

Cell type: Prokaryotic
Cell numbers: Unicellular
Cell nutrition: Heterotrophic or Autotrophic
Cell walls made with no peptidoglycans
Examples: thermophiles, acidophiles, halophiles

Peptidoglycans

Large, organic molecules containing protein & sugar in their cell walls

Characteristics of the Kingdom Eubacteria

Cell type: Prokaryotic
Cell numbers: Unicellular
Cell nutrition: Heterotrophic or Autotrophic
Cell walls that contain peptidoglycans
Examples: E coli, Streptococcus

Characteristics of the Kingdom Protista

Cell type: Eukaryotic
Cell numbers: Unicellular or forms colonies
Cell nutrition: Heterotrophic, Autotrophic, or both
Cell walls made of: cellulose
Examples: amoeba, paramecium, protozoans, sporozoans

Characteristics of the Kingdom Fungi

Cell type: Eukaryotic
Cell numbers: Unicellular or multicellular
Cell nutrition: Absorptive heterotrophs
Cell walls made of: chitin
Examples: mushrooms, molds, mildews

Absorptive heterotrophs

Digest food outside their body and then absorb it

Characteristics of the Kingdom Plantae

Cell type: Eukaryotic
Cell numbers: Multicellular
Cell nutrition: Autotrophic
Cell walls made of: cellulose
Examples: Trees, herbs, shrubs

Characteristics of the Kingdom Animalia

Cell type: Eukaryotic
Cell numbers: Multicellular
Cell nutrition: Ingestive heterotrophs
No cell walls
Examples: Birds, worms, lions, tigers, bears

Ingestive heterotrophs

Consume their food and digest it inside their bodies

Binomial nomenclature

The double naming classfication system that Linnaeus introduced

Binomial

Means "2 name"

Nomenclature

Means "naming"

Genus

A group of similar organisms within a family

Species

A group of similar organisms within a genus

3 rules that need to be followed when writing a genus-species name

1. Genus name is capitalized.
2. If name is handwritten, needs to be underlined.
3. If name is typed, it needs to be italicized.

Variety

Different forms or types of an organism within a species

Human taxonomy level names

Domain - Eukarya
Kingdom - Animalia
Phylum - Chordata
Class - Mammalia
Order - Primates
Family - Hominidae
Genus - Homo
Species - sapiens (or Homo sapiens)

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