Ch 9: Senses

47 terms by DrDavila Teacher

Ready to study?
Start with Flashcards

Create a new folder

general senses

receptors for these senses are distributed throughout body;
eg, pain, touch, temperature, and proprioception (body position)

special senses

receptors for these senses found in specific organ;
eg, taste, smell, vision, hearing, balance

sensation

detection of a stimulus by a receptor and the conduction of that stimulus to the CNS

perception

conscious awareness of a sensation within an organism's brain/mind

chemoreceptor

detect chemicals;
eg gustatory (taste) and olfaction (smell) receptors

photoreceptor

detect light energy;
eg vision receptors

mechanoreceptor

detect physical movement or pressure;
eg auditory (hearing) and equilibrium (balance) receptors

nociceptors

detect pain;
found throughout the skin and some internal organs

thermoreceptor

detect temperature;
found throughout the skin and in hypothalamus

vision

sense of sight;
detects light energy (photons)

conjunctiva

mucous membrane lining eyelids and covering anterior sclera

lacrimal gland

glands superior and lateral to eyes that secrete tears to lubricate & cleanse the eye

sclera

fibrous outermost layer of the eye; envelops entire eye except cornea portion; "whites" of eye

cornea

hard, fibrous transparent structure covereing the iris and pupil

choroid coat

highly-vascularized darkly pigmented middle layer of eyeball; absorbs excess light to prevent it from interfering with vision

iris

colored portion of eye; allows light through the pupil (hole in iris) to reach the retina

pupil

"black" hole in iris, where light that passes through is focused by the lens onto the retina

lens

elastic, transparent disc-shaped structure that focuses light onto the retina

ciliary body

muscles of the lens

aqueous humor

watery liquid anterior to lens, posterior to cornea;
too much is causes glaucoma

vitreous humor

transparent jelly filling posterior chamber of eyeball;
holds retina in place

glaucoma

condition in which aqueous humor drains improperly, accumulates in anterior chamber, elevating intraocular pressure; leads to loss of vision / blindness

retina

innermost neural layer of the eye, where photoreceptors are

cone

color-detecting photoreceptor;
humans have cones tuned to either red, green, or blue

rod

light-detecting photorceptor; work only in low-light conditions; does not distinguish colors

macula lutea

center of the retina, where photoreceptors are conctrated; appears as a yellow spot on retina

fovea centralis

pit in center of macula, where cones are highly concetrated; dead center in one's field of vision

pathway of light

source/subject → cornea → pupil (past iris) → lens → retina

auricle

fleshy, visible part of the ear;
directs sound waves into auditory canal;
aka pinna

auditory canal

ear canal connecting auricle to tympanic membrane; aka external auditory meatus

tympanic membrane

membrane in ear that sound vibrates onto ossicles;
aka ear drum

middle ear

air-filled cavity containing ossicles;
behind tympanic membrane until cochlea; connected to pharynx via eustachian tubes

auditory ossicles

3 smallest bones in body, transmit sound waves from outer ear (ear durm) to inner ear (cochlea):
malleus (hammer)
incus (anvil)
stapes (stirrup)

eustachian tube

"auditory tube" connecting middle ear to pharynx (throat); equilizes pressure inside middle ear with outside

cochlea

hearing organ of the inner ear; contains mechanoreceptors in organ of Corti that detect sound waves

semicircular canals

inner-ear organs that detect head rotation

vestibule

inner-ear organ detects balance, head tilt and forward-backward motion

pathway of sound

ear canal → tympanic membrane → ossicles → cochlea → cochlear nerve (auditory nerve)

olfaction

sense of smell;
detects chemicals dissolved in air

sensory adaptation

reduction of perception of a constant harmless stimulus;
eg, "get used to a smell"

gustation

sense of taste;
detects chemicals dissolved in foods & liquids on tongue

taste bud

contain chemoreceptors that detect dissolves chemicals; found in tongue papillae

5 tastes

sweet
salty
sour
bitter
umami (meaty or savory)

touch

mechanoreceptors detect physical forces that deform or move tissue (eg skin);
similar to sense of pressure

proprioception

sense of body position, orientation, and location; receptors in tendons, ligaments, and muscles

temperature

detection of temperature outside & inside the body; deteceted by thermoreceptors

pain

detected by nociceptors located throughout body (eg skin); stimulated by tissue damage

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set