Ch 21 Reproductive System

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reproductive system functions

create new organism;
secrete hormones necessary for sexual characteristics and development

gamete

germ cell;
eg, egg and sperm

gonad

reproductive organ: ovary and testis

oogenesis

creation of ovum (egg);
occurs via meiosis (sex-cell division)

spermatogenesis

creation of spermatozoa;
occurs via meiosis (sex-cell division)

meiosis

sex-cell division;
results in gamete with 23 chromosomes (22 autosomal & 1 sex chromosome: X or Y)

fertilization

fusion of egg and sperm;
usually occurs in uterine tube;
aka conception

zygote

fertilized egg;
46 chromosomes;
aka early embryo

ovary

female gamete-producing organ;
also produces hormones estrogen and progesterone

Graafian follicle

sacs in ovary containing developing ova

ovulation

release of ovum from Graafian follicle; corpus luteum remains

corpus luteum

"empty" degenerating Graafian follicle after ovulation; releases progesterone

Fallopian tubes

pair of tubes from ovary to uterus;
propels ovum towards uterus;
fertilzation usually occurs here;
aka uterine tube or oviduct

uterus

hollow muscular organ in which a zygote may develop into fetus;
3 parts fundus, body, cervix
3 layers, endo-, myo-, and perimetrium

fundus

rounded "hump"-like sturcture (in uterus or stomach)

body

largest part of many organs (eg, uterus, penis, stomach)

cervix

"neck" of the uterus, which extends into vagina

perimetrium

serous membrane that covers the outside of uterus

myometrium

large muscular layer of the uterus

endometrium

inside lining of uterus, where a zygote may implant and develop;
active zone (innermost portion) sloughs (falls out) during menstruation

vagina

muscular tube that receives semen, discharges menses; and forms lower portion of birth canal

perineum

area between vagina and anus

vulva

external female genitalia;
includes labia majora/minora, vestibule, clitoris, and hymen

mons pubis

"pubic mound"; made of fatty tissue overlying pubic symphysis (joint of two pubic pelvis bones) for protection

labia majora

2 large fat-filled skin folds that enclose vulva

labia minora

2 smaller folds of skin that enclose vestibule

vestibule

area between the labia minora

clitoris

erectile organ, similar to the penis;
responds to stimulation, increasing opportunity for orgasm

orgasm

pleasurable rhythmic muscular contraction;
expels semen in males and may (maybe not) assist fertilization in females

Bartholin's glands

lubricates the vagina with mucus-like solution

hymen

epithelial fold that covers some of vaginal orifice

breast

either of 2 soft fleshy milk-secreting glandular organs on female chest

mammary gland

gland in mammalian breast; produces milk to nourish young

lactiferous duct

transport milk from mammary glands to nipple

areola

circular pigmented area surrounding nipple; darken during pregnancy

prolactin

hormone that stimulates milk production;
(several other functions)

oxytocin

hormone causes uterine contraction, milk leet-down, and involved in pair-bonding between partners & mother/child (many other interesting things!);
means "quick birth" in Greek

menstrual cycle

4 phases:
1. follicle
2. ovulation
3. luteal (or corpus luteum)
4. menstruation

follicle stage

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) stimulates ovum development in follicle

follicle-stimulating hormone

signal in blood released by anterior pituitary (aka "master gland");
stimulates ovum development (oogenesis in ♀) andestrogen release (in ♀) and sperm development (spermatogenesis in ♂);
aka FSH

estrogen

female hormone released by ovary;
responsible for secondary sex characteristics (in ♀)

ovulation

release of ovum from ovary upon luteinizing-hormone surge

luteinizing hormone

signal in blood released by anterior pituitary (aka "master gland");
stimulates ovulation (in ♀) and testosterone production (in ♂);
aka LH

luteal stage

"empty" follicle divides and releases progesterone

progesterone

hormone produced by corpus luteum in ovary (or placenta) to thicken and maintain uterus, and thus, pregnancy;
main component of hormonal contraceptives

menstrual stage

begins when LH decreases;
initiates menses (ie "period")

menstruation

active zone (innermost portion) of endometrium sloughs (falls out)

menarche

first menstruation;
occurs at onset of puberty usually between 12-15 years (range 9-17 years)

menopause

menstruation stopping;
occurs between 45-55years of age

testes

male gonads in scrotum;
produces sperm and tersosterone

scrotum

fleshy pouch contains testis

spermatozoa

male gamete;
made of: head (DNA in chromosomes, or genetic material), middle piece (with mitochondria), and flagellum (for propulsion);
aka sperm (shortened)

epididymis

comma-shaped organ on testis, where sperm mature

vas deferens

receives mature sperm from epididymis and expels them through ejaculatory duct upon ejaculation (usually accompanying orgasm);
aka ductus deferens

ejaculatory duct

duct where vas deferens and seminal vesicle meet; carries fluid through prostate gland into urethra

seminal gland

located between bladder and rectum; secretes about 60% of seminal fluid, high in fructose (sugar)

prostate gland

firm (partly) muscular chestnut-sized gland (in ♂) at urethral neck; secretes alkaline, thick seminal fluid (about 30% of semen)

bulbo-urethral gland

bulb-shaped glands along ♂ urethra; may serve to lubricate penis and neutralize acidity of urethra

semen

composed of sperm & seminal fluid (from 3 glands);
aka ejaculate

penis

♂ copulatory organ (similar to clitoris);
3 parts: root, body (or shaft), and glans ("head")

erection

when ♂ is aroused, penis becomes engorged with blood and rigid

glans penis

tip of penis;
aka "head" of penis

prepuce

foreskin;
may be removed during circumcision

circumcision

removal of foreskin (historically, ritually performed);
recently shown to reduce HIV transmission

emission

forceful discharge of semen into urethra

ejaculation

forceful semen expulsion out of urethra

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