History Chapter 18 study guide

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Reconstruction

The rebuilding of the south

Ten percent plan

a plan made by Lincoln where a southern state could form a new government after ten percent of its voters swore an oath to the United States. The new government had do abolish slavery and after voters could elect members of congress and take part in the national government again.

Wade-Davis bill

- a rival plan for reconstruction made by republicans. It required a majority of white men in each southern state to swear loyalty to the United States. It denied the right to vote or hold office to anyone who had volunteered to fight for the confederacy. Lincoln refused to sign this bill because he thought it was too harsh.

Freedmen's bureau

A government agency to help former slaves.

John Wilkes booth

The man who assassinated Lincoln. Booth was a popular actor from the south.

Andrew Johnson

Lincoln's vice president that had stayed loyal to the union even after his home state seceded

Thirteenth amendment

An amendment to the constitution that banned slavery in the United States, which was approved by congress January 1865.

Radical Republicans

A group led by Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner that had mail goals of breaking the power of wealthy planters and ensuring that freedmen could vote

Thaddeus Stevens

A man from Pennsylvania who led the Radical Republicans. His main goals were breaking the power of wealthy planters and ensuring that freedmen could vote

Charles Sumner

A leader of the Radical republicans along with Thaddeus Stevens. He was from Massachusetts and was in the senate. His two main goals were breaking the power of wealthy planters and ensuring that freedmen could vote

Fourteenth Amendment

The amendment that states that all people born or naturalized in the USA were citizens. It guaranteed citizens equal protection of the laws and forbade states to deprive any person of life, liberty or property without due process of law. States could not legally discriminate a citizen on unreasonable grounds.

Radical Reconstruction

A period in 1867 where congress prepared to take charge of Reconstruction. Congress could easily override a veto because Republicans had huge majorities in both houses

Reconstruction Act

An act passed by congress that threw out the state governments that had refused to pass the fourteenth amendment- all the former confederate states except Tennessee. It also divided the south into five military districts. Army commanders were given broad powers to enforce the Reconstruction. Many southerners bitterly opposed this new rule. It also said that to rejoin the union, former confederate states had to right new constitutions and ratify the fourteenth amendment. It also required southern states to allow African Americans to vote.

Fifteenth Amendment

This amendment was proposed by congress in 1869. It forbade any state to deny any citizen the right to vote because of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

Hiram Revels

- A clergyman and teacher who became the nation's first black senator in 1870. He completed the term of Jefferson Davis.

Blanche K Bruce

The first African American to serve a full term in the senate in 1874.

Conservatives

White southerners who held power before the Civil War. These people resisted the reconstruction.

Ku Klux Klan

- A secret society to help white southerners regain power. These groups tried to keep blacks and white republicans out of office.

Rutherford B Hayes

An Ohio governor chose by Republicans to run in the presidential election of 1876. Hayes became president and ended reconstruction.

Jim Crow Laws

Laws in the south that kept blacks from using the same things as whites such as restaurants, schools, playgrounds, and cemeteries.

Plessy v. Ferguson

- A lawsuit filed by blacks that went to the Supreme Court in which segregation was declared legal if the two separate things were equal, which they usually were not.

Henry Grady

An Atlanta journalist who described a new south.

"New South"

A vision described by Henry Grady that would make a new southern economy that would use its vast resources to build up its own economy.

James Duke

A North Carolina man who used new machinery to revolutionize the manufacture of tobacco products.

Freedmen

Men and women who had been slaves

Amnesty

A government pardon

Black codes

Laws that severely limited the rights of freedmen

Impeach

To bring formal charges against

Scalawag

- a term used for small scruffy horses.

Carpetbagger

a term used to describe northerners who came to live in the south after the war.

Sharecropper

Freedmen and poor whites who worked in large plantations. These people rented and farmed on a plot of land. Planters provided seed, fertilizer and tools in return for a share of the crop at harvest time.

Poll tax

- A tax voters had to pay in order to vote.

Literacy test

Tests that required voters to read a part of the constitution and explain it.

Grandfather cause

A law that stated that if a voter's father or grandfather had been eligible to vote on January 1, 1867, the voter did not need to take the test.

Segregation

Legal separation of races

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