A & P

217 terms by Donnac 

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Grow, reproduce, responed & adapt to their environmennts

characteristics of most living organisms include the ability to

waste products of metabolism are eliminated through the process of

excreation

the study of the first few weeks of life are called

embryology

the study of structures using special imaging techniques is

radiographic anatomy

an ear, nose, and throat specialist is concerned primarily with the study of

regional anatomy

the study of function is to physiology

as the study of form is to anatomy

the study of tissues is called

histology

all of the chemical & physical changes taking place in the body refer to

metabolism

the production of anorther human organism is the function of which system

reproductive

the internal transport of blood and dissolve substances is the function of what system

cardiovascular system

the trachea and lungs are componets of what system

respiratory system

gas exchange is the function of what system

the respiratory system

which of the following are parts of a homestatic mechanism

receptors, control center, & effector

a personthat is laying on thei stomach is said to be in the

prone position

indicates the front of the body

anterior & ventral

term that indicate medial to the breast

sternum

the wrist is considered to be what to the elbow

distal

what region corresponds to the lower back

lumbar

what region corresponds to the foot

pedal

a cut passing through the midline of the body that sivides it into equal left and right halves is known as

midsagittal

the diaphragm seperates what cavity from what cavity

thoracic & abdominopelvic

the peritoneal cavity contains the

small intestines

what technique is used to check a pregnant womans fetus that uses sound waves

ultra sound

which sectional plane could be used to divide a body so that the face remains intact

coronal plane

skin is considered to what

an organ

a collection of cells that work together is considered to be what

tissue

reffering to the back means

dorsal

the heart is surrounded by what membrane

pericardial

the membrane coving the surface of the heart is referred to as the

visceral pericardium

what term refers to the wrist

carpus

a person lying in the anatomical position is said to be in what position

supine

a structure that senses chang is called what

receptor

the tendency for physiological system to stabilize internal condidtions with respect to the external environment is called what

homeostasis

the branch of biological science that deal with how the kidney function is called what

renal physiology

the study of the body structure is called what

anatomy

principal elements of the human body are

hydrogen, sulfur, iron,& iodine

the best definition of matter is

has weight and takes up space

in a exegonic reaction

energy is released during the reaction

calicum atoms have 2 eletrons in the outermost shell. as a result, one would expect calcium to form ions with a charge of

+2

an excess of hydrogen ions in the body fluids have disastrous results because

excess hydrogen ions can break chemical bonds, they can change the shape of large complex molecules, making them non-functional, can disrupt tissue function, & can kill living cells

enzymes are

proteins, function as biological catalysts, lower the activation energy for a reaction,& affect the rate of a chemical reaction

chemical reactions that occur in the human body are controlled by special catalytic molecules called

enzymes

nucleic acids are composed of units called

nucleotides

molecules that perform most cellular work are called

proteins

functions of proteins are

support,transport, movement, & metabolic regulation

lipids are used for

essential structural componets of cells, provide roughly twices as much energy as carbohydrates, help maintain body temperature, & help cushion delicate organs from damage

a polysaccharide that cannot be digested by humans

cellulose

carbohydrate molecules may be used for

primary enrgy storage molecule, part of nucleic acid structure, the body's most important source of energy, & receptors of the cell surface

inorganic acids in the body are

hydrochloric, carbonic, sulfuric, & phosphoric

it is important to keep pH regulated because an imbalance in H+ concentration cn cause

structural damage, deactivation of wnzymes, overactivation of enzymes, & unwated chemical reactions

during ionization, water molecules disrupt the ionic bonds of aa solute, resulting in a mixture of ions. These ions are called

electrolytes

carbon dioxide is

composed of nonpolar molecules, can pass easily through a cell membrane, it dissolves in water, & it is waste product

what is the most abudant chemical compound in the human body

water

a substance that has a pH of greater than 7 it is said to be

alkaline

how many electrons do MOST atoms need intheir outer shell to be stable

8

ionic bonds are formed when

cations & anions are held together by their opposite charges

ions with a postive charge are called

cations

positively charged subatomic particles are called

protons

the mass number represents the number of

protons & neutrons

electron have what type of charge

negative charge

the simplest unit of matter is

an atom

acid

solute that dissociates to release hydrogen ions

base

a solute that removes hydrgen ions

buffer

compounds that stabilize pH

solution

consists of a fluid solvent and dissolves solutes

water

the most important body constituent

monosaccharides

glucose, frutose

disaccharides

lactose, sucrose

polysaccharides

glycogen

fatty acids

lauric acid,

steroids

cholesterol

glycerides

digglycerides, triglycerides, monoglycerides

The term cancer refers to

an illness characterized by miligant cells, neoplasms that have the tendency to metastasize to new sites, any of various malignant neoplasms

transcription occurs in the

nucleus

the classes of membrane proteins that permit water and solutes to bypass the lipid portion of the cell are

channel proteins

the phosphate group of phospholipids is

polar & hydrophilic

the process that seperates solids particles from liquids is known as

filtration

the cellular organelle responsible for recycling intracellular protein is called

proteosome

cellular organelles are located within the

cystoplasm

the cell membrane

protects the cell and acts as a filter

when sodium ione are moved across the cell membrane against concentration gradient

celluar ATP is used

if someone sweats profuselyand loses large amounts of water, the result will be that the blood plasma becomes to the cells

hyoertonic

if a cell lecked ribosomes, it would not be able to

synthesize proteins

Before a cell can divide by mitiosis, what must occur

replication of DNA

hemolysis occurs when a bood cell is places into

hypotonic solution

cilia are found in

cells that are required to move a fluid medium along their surface

the nucleus stores all the information needed to synthesize which of the following molecules

proteins

the control center for celluar operations is the

nucleus

the cell's DNA is located in the

nucleus

when activated, lysosomes function in

digestion of fereign materials

renewal or modification of the cell membrane is a function of the

golgi apparatus

Most of the ATP required to power cellular operations is produced in the

mitochondria

flagella moves a cell through a fluid medium. What moves the fluid medium across the surface of the cells

cilia

componets of the cystoskeleton include

microfilaments, microtbules, protein, & myosin

the packaging of extracellular materials in a vesicle at the cell surface for importation into the cell is called

endocytosis

the process that requires cellular energy to move a substance againt its concentration gradient is called

active transport

the process by which molecules such as glucose are moved into cells along their concentration gradient with the help of membrane-bound carrier proteins is called

passive transport

the following are functions of skeletal muscles

produce movement, maintain posture, & maintain body teperature

the following are statements about what muscle the contractions of skeletal muscles pull on tendons & move elements of the skeleton, skeletal muscles are responsible for guarding the openings of the digestive & urinary tracts, skeletal muscles support the weight of some internal organs, & the skeletal muscles contractions help maintain body temperature

skeletal muscles

myofibrils are made primarily of

actin & myosin

nerves & blood vessels that services the muscle fibers are located in the connective tissue of the

perimysium

the delicate connective tissue that surrounds the skeletal muscle fibers & ties adjacent muscle fibers together is the

endomysium

neurotransmitters that cause skeletal muscle contraction are normally stored in

motor neuron endings

skeletal muscle fibers differ from typical cells in that these muscle fibers

have many nuclei

the cystoplasm of a skeletal muscle fiber is called the

sarcoplasm

a muscle cramp is most likely due to a lack of

ATP

the smooth but steady increase in muscle tension produces by increasing the number of active motor units is called

recruitment

when energy reserves in a muscle exhausted or lactic acid levels increase

fatique occurs

activities that require anaerobic endurance

require maximal contraction of muscles for short periods of time

the following are characteristics of cardiac muscle

cardiac muscle fibers areare uninucleate, cardiac muscles cannot be tetanized, cardiac muscles contain sarcomeres, & neurons that innervate cardiac muscles are under involuntary control

non-striated, involuntary muscle is

smooth

a muscle of mastication is

mentalis

the following are descriptive terms for a muscle's action

levator, extensor, tensor, & adductor

muscles ending in the suffix -coastal would be found in the

chest

rigor mortis that occurs in skeletal muscles a few hours after death is due to

decreased ATP and increased permeability to calcium

in recording a muscle twitch, the delay between the stimulus and the muscle response is called

latent period

the brief moment following stimulation when a muscle is unresponsive to anorther stimulus is called

refactory period

the following describes the action of the trapezius

retracts the shoulder & adducts the scapula

the muscle that adducts & extends the humerus is the

latissimus dorsi

the muscle that extends the arm while doing push-ups is the

triceps brachii

in additin to the type & number of muscle fibers in a muscle, peak athletic performance requires

a good blood supply & system of blood delivery, a well-developed respiratory system, the coordination of the nervous system, & a good supply of nutrients.

the following are consequences of aging

muscle fibers become smaller in diameter, muscles become less elastic, muscles fatique more rapidly, & muscles fibers become less efficient.

the following is considered a postural muscle

erector spinae

this hormone regulates calcium & phosohate ion concentrations

calcitonin & parathyroid hormone

Vitamin D, is a necessay componet for Ca2+ absorption from the intestine, it is synthesized by what system

integumentary system

contraction during muscle lengethening is called

eccentric contraction

what hormone stimulates growth of muscle tissue & increases muscle mass

testosterone

this activity would employ isometric contractions

maintaining an upright posture

increased oxygen consumption would accompany the following

increased heat production, increased lactic acid to glucose, increased aerobic respiration by muscle cells, & increased muscle activity.

you having problems plantar flexing & inverting your right foot, what muscles are involved in these activities?

soleus & gastrocnmius

a trumpet player ask which muscles should he develop in order to be a better trumpter

the buccinator & orbicularis oris

a term used to describe a number of geneticly inherited diseases characterized by progressive muscular weakness & deterioration is

musclular dystrophy

rigor mortisoccurs at death due to a lack of

ATP

the bacterium that causes tetanus is

clostridium tetani

this condition occurs when an organ protudes through an abnormal opening

ha sheath surrounding each skeletal muscle fiber is called enrnia

the muscular system includes approx. how many skeletal muscles which can be voluntary controlled

700

glycolysis is considered what process

anaerobic

what protein works with myosin & is responsible for muscle contraction & relaxation

actin

what part of a muscle contains sarcolemma, sarcoplasm, filaments, & myofibrils

fiber

a sheath surrounding eachskeletal muscle fiber is called

endomysium

what are bands o collagen fibers that attach skeletal muscles to bone called

tendons

each of the following are functions of the nervous system

providing sensation of the internal & extrnal environments, intergarating sensory information, regulating or controling peripheral structures & systems

the brain & spinal cord comprimise the

central nervous system

the cystoplasmic extensions that, together with the cell body, provise the main receptive surfaces for neurons are

dendrites

the part of the peripheral nervous system that brings information to the central neverous system is the

efferent division

masses of myelinated nerve fibers appear

white

the largest & most numerous of the glial cells in the central nervous system are the

astrocytes

the myelin sheaths that surround the axona of some of the neurons in the CNA are formed by

oligodendrocytes

the following is a glial cell

astrocytes, Achwann cell, microlia, & ependymal cells

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