Sociology Unit Test 1

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Henslin chp1-5

After submitting her completed research dissertation to her comittee, Becky was accused of plagiarism by the chair of the department. What did the chair believe Becky did?

Becky copied major parts of her dissertation from someone else's work

To be classified as a society, what are the two key qualitites a group of people must share?

A common culture and a territory

Which sociological perspective analyzes how social life depends on the ways we define ourselves and other?

Symbolic interactionism

What term describes the use of sociology to solve social problems in business, the workplace, and other aspects of society?

Applied sociology

How did Karl Marx and Max Weber differ in their theoretical assumptions?

Marx believed economics was the central force driving social change, and Weber claimed it was religion

What event led to an uprooting of what had been traditional social arrangements?

The industrial revolution

What is a general statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they work?

A theory

Which sociological perspective views society as being composed of groups that engage in fierce competition for scarce resources?

Conflict theory

Which theoretical perspective stresses that society is a whole unit, made up of interrelated parts that work together harmoniously?

Functional analysis

What term did Robert Merton use to describe human actions that hurt a system (society) that are usually unintended?

Latent dysfunctions

Frank is examining the broad stream of events that have occurred over the past 50 years and the specific experiences of his own life. By doing so, what sociological process has Frank undertaken?

The sociological imagination

Based on Emile Durkheim's research on suicide, which individual would be the greatest suicide risk?

Herbert, a single Protestant man living in the city

Anthony is conducting experimental research on the effects of an educational therapy programand the conflict-resolution skills of inmates. He has established two groups. Group A will receive a special conflict-resolution therapy program. Group B will go about their routine without receiving the therapy or a therapy substitute. What is Group B in experimental research such as this?

The control group

Max Weber referred to the self-denying approach to life as the protestant ethic, true or false?

True

Individuals becoming homeless because of welfare reform legislation that cuts all payments to non-working Americans after two years would be classified as a latent dysfunction of the legislation, true or false?

True

Marxism and communism are indentical political ideologies with both leading to a classless society, true or false?

False

Pure, basic, and applied sociology are all terms that refer to the application of the scientific method to the social world, true or false?

False

Common sense is the most important aspect of designing sociological research, true or false?

False

Symbolic interactionism and structural functionalism are both theoretical perspectives that rely on macro-level analysis, true or false?

False

W.E.B. Du Bois and Jane Addams would be most appropiately classified as applied sociologists, true or false?

True

Sociological Perspective

Stresses the social contexts in which people live;examines how contexts influence people's lives

Society

A groups of people who share a culture and a territory

Sociology

"The study of society"; the purpose is not only to discover social principles, but also to apply them to social reform

Positivism

Applying the scientific method to the social world, suggested by Auguste Comte

Class Conflict

The engine of human history, the idea that society is made up of two classes and that they are natural enemies (Burgeoise v. Proletariat)

Social Integration

The degree to which people are tied to their social group

Replication

Repeating a study in order to compare a new study with the original findings

Values

Beliefs about what is good or desirable in life and the way the world ought to be

Latent Dysfunctions

Usually unintended human actions that hurt a system

Applied Sociology

Using sociology to solve problems

Theory

A general statement of how some parts of the world fit together and how they work

Micro-Level Analysis

Examining what people do when they are in one another's presence

Macro-Level Analysis

Examining large scale patterns of society

Participant Observation

Where the researcher participates in a research setting while observing what is happening in that setting

Public Sociology

Harnessing the sociological perspective for the benefit of the public, a middle ground between research and reform

Social Location

The corners in life that people occupy because of where they are located in a society

Emile Durkheim

Found the trends underlying suicide, less social integration=the higher the rate, proestant, male, and unmarried have higher rates

Social Integration

The degree to which people are tied to their social groups

W.E.B. Du Bois

African American, fought againt racisms, published a book on black white relations, founded National Association fro the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

Jane Addams

Co founded NAACP and fought for social reform

Symbolic Interactionism

Idea that symbols (things to which we attach meaning) are the key to understanding how we view the world and communicate with one another

Functional Analysis / Structural Functionalism

The society is a whole unit, made up of iterrelated parts that work together, like organs working together in a body

Classless Society

Concept that Karl Marx believed in would be a result of a revolution due to class conflict

Manifest/Latent Functions

Manifest is an action that is intended to help the system and latent is a function that unintendedly helps the system adjust

Conflict Theory

A conclusion by Marx that the key to human history in class conflict

Operational Definition

Precise ways to measure the variables

What term do sociologists use to describe the language, beliefs, values, norms, behavior, and material objects shared by members of society that are also passed from one generation to the next?

Culture

Which set of concepts best illustrates nomaterial culture?

Beliefs, values, norms

When sociologists use the phrase, "the culture within us," what do they mean?

Shared and learned ways of believing and doing become taken-for-granted assumptions

Mark is a foreign exchange student living with a Chinese family. The first night he was with them his hosts served a delicious entree of meat and vegetables. Although tasty, Mark could not identify the meat. When his host told him it was roast dog Mark became upset and decided to become a vegetarian for the course of his stay. In view of this, which sociological concept did Mark just experience?

Culture shock

What is the tendency to use our own group's ways of doing things as the yardstick for judging the behavior, values, and beliefs of others?

Ethnocentrism

How do members of a society acquire the ability to use and understand gestures?

Most gestures are learned through interaction with others

What term refers to how our language determines our consciousness and perceptions of objects and events?

The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

What are the expectations or rules of behavior that develop out of a group's values?

Norms

What term describes hugs, smiles, and "high fives" that are freely given between two individuals as a sign of expressing approval for following a norm?

Positive Sanctions

What term describes a society which is made up of many different religions, races, and ethnic groups?

A pluralistic society

What is the core value that pervades U.S. life and is underscored by the American revolution?

Freedom

What term do sociologists use to describe the norms and values that people actually follow as opposed to those the would follow if they lives in "a perfect world"?

Real culture

When American servicemen occupied Japan following World War II, the Japanese watched the Americans playing baseball, appreciated the sport, and adopted it themselves. Today, baseball is one of the most popular sports in Japan. This adoption of baseball by the Japanese is an example of what?

Cultural diffusion

Most gestures are universal and serve as an international method of communication, true or false?

False

United States society contains thousands of subcultures, true or false?

True

Because of the freedom of speech and ability to express individual views, culture wards are almost nonexistent in the United States, true or false?

False

A society's material culture usually experiences a change first, and the nonmaterial culture catches up to the change later, true or false?

True

Wayne always wears a lapel pin on his suit signifying that he was the recipient of the Medal of Honor when he was in the service. Usually, only veterans recognize what the pin actually means. In view of this, which of the following terms best describes Wayne's lapel pin?

It is a symbol to which people attach meaning

The motorcycle gang "Hells Angels" is a good example of a subculture because their values and norms blend in with mainstream society, true or false?

False

Within a culture values never change, true or false?

False

Counterculture

A group whose values, beliefs, and related behaviors place its members in opposition to the broader culture

Cultural Diffusion

The spread of cultural characteristics from one group to another

Cultural Lag

Ogburn's term for human behavior lagging behind technological innovations

Cultural Leveling

The process by which cultures become similar to one another especially refers to the process by which U.S. culture is being imported and diffused into other nations

Cultural Relativism

Not judging a culture but trying to understand it on its own terms (cultural empathy)

Culture

The language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and even material objects that are passed from one generation to the next

Culture Shock

The disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with a fundamentally different culture and can no longer depend on their taken-for-granted assumptions about life

Ethnocentrism

The use of one's own culture as a yardstick for judging the ways of other individuals or societies, generally leading to a negative evaluation of the other societies' values, norms, and behaviors

Folkways

Norms that are not strictly enforces

Gestures

The ways in which people use their bodies to communicate with one another

Ideal Culture

The ideal values and norms of a people; the goals held out for them

Language

A system of symbols that can be combines in an infinite number of ways and can represent not only objects but also abstract thought

Material Culture

The material objects that distinguish a group of people, such as their art, buildings, weapons, utensils, machines, hairstyles, clothing, and jewelry

Mores

Norms that are strictly enforce because they are thought essential to core values

Negative Sanction

An expression of disapproval for breaking a norm, ranging from a mild, informal reaction such a a frown to a formal reaction such as a prison sentence or an execution

New Technology

An emerging technology that has a significant impact on social life

Nonmaterial Culture / Symbolic Culture

A group's ways of thinking (and culture) and doing (it common patterns of behavior, including language and other forms of interaction)

Norms

The expectations, or rules of behavior, that develop to reflect and enforce values

Pluralistic Society

A society made up of many different groups

Positive Sanction

A reward or positive reaction for following norms

Real Culture

The norms and values that people actually follow

Sanctions

Expressions of approval or disapproval given to people for upholding or violating norms

Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis

Edward Sapir's and Benjamin Whorf's hypothesis that language creates ways of thinking and perceiving

Subculture

The values and related behaviors of a group that distinguish its members from the larger culture; a world withint a world

Symbol

Something to which people attach meanings and then use to communicate with others

Symbolic Culture

Another term for nonmaterial culture

Taboo

A norm thought essential for society's welfare, one so strong that it brings revulsion if violated

Technology

In its narrow sense, tools; its broader sense includes the skills or procedures necessary to make and use those tools

Value Contradiction

Values that contradict one another to follow the one means to come into conflict with the otehr

Values

The standards by which people define what is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly

Early interaction with other humans in necessary to establish intelligence and the ability to experience close bonds with others, true or false?

True

According to Charles Horton Cooley, how do we develop our self concept?

Our self concept develops from interaction with others

In Piaget's model, in which stage do children become "young philosophers" who are capable of abstract thinking?

The formal operational stage

What are the stages we pass through from birth to death that include childhood, adolescence, transitional childhood, the middle years, and the older years?

The life course

George Herbert Mead concluded that both the self and the human mind are social products, true or false?

True

Meagan always paints her fingernails purple and always wears a pin representing the Minnesota Vikings. What term describes what Meagan's purple fingernails and pin represent?

It is Meagan's personal identity kit

What is the process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors called?

Resocialization

What term applies to the gap between childhood and adulthood that was first addressed during the Industrial Revolution?

Adolescence

What conclusion can be drawn from the case study of Oskar and Jack, the identical twins who were born in 1932 and raised in very different cultures?

One's orientation to life is largely the result of environment

To what sociological perspective is Mead's theory of human development most aligned?

Symbolic interactionist

Why do sociologists generally object to the Freudian view of personality?

Sociologists reject the view that inborn or subconscious motivations are primary reasons for our behavior

Bob's football coach is a very important influence in his life. Many of Bob's actions are attempts to win the approval of his coach. Based on Mead's theory on development, which concept applies most to the relationship between Bob and his coach?

Bob's coach is one of his significant others

April spends more than 40hrs/week in day care because both her parents work full-time. Hope spends about 15 hrs/week in day care because her mother only works part-time. Based upon the studies, what can one expect of the relationship April will have with her mother by the time she starts school?

April will have a weaker bond with her mother than Hope

Fred has applied for the position of head football coach at a local middle school, a role he has not fulfilled in the past. Although the Board of Education hasn't announced its decision on who will receive the position, Fred is already developing plays, looking at methods to motivate his players, and ways to get the student body behind the team. Based on this, what condition is Fred experiences?

Anticipatory socialization

Which of the following would be the best example of a total institution?

A mental hospital

Studies that involve identical twins demonstrate that both heredity and environment influence human development, true or false?

True

Leo, Matthews, Ryan, Liz, Isabelle, and Francis grew up together, attended the same schools, and share many of the same interests. Sociologically, which concept best describe their relationship?

They comprise a peer group

According to George Herbert Mead, how does a child learn to take the role of others?

Through play and imitation

As children, boys usually receive trucks, sporting equipment, and action toys. Girls receive dolls and gifts that are most passive. Overall, what do sociologists call this sex-based criteria for the gifts children receive?

Gender socialization

Without language there can be no culture and culture is the key to what people become, true or false?

True

Agents of Socialization

People or groups that affect our self-concept, attitudes, behaviors, or other orientations toward life

Anticipatory Socialization

Because one anticipates a future role, one learns parts of it now

Degradation Ceremony

A term coined by Harold Garfinkel to describe an attempt to remake the shelf by stripping away an individual's self-identity and stamping a new identity in its place

Feral Children

Children raised apart from human society

Gender

The attitudes and behaviors that are expected of us because we are a male or a female

Gender Role

The behaviors and attitudes that a group considers proper for males and females; masculinity and femininity

Gender Socialization

The ways in which society sets children onto different courses in life because they are male or female

Generalized Other

The norms, values, attitudes, and expectations of people "in general"; the child's ability to take the role of the generalized other is a significant step in the development of a self

Life Course

The stage in our life as we go from birth to death

Looking-Glass Self

A term coined by Charles Horton Cooley to refer to the process by which our sense of self develops through internalizing others' reactions to us

Mass Media

Forms of communication, such as radio, newspapers, movies, and television that are directed to mass audiences

Peer Group

A group of individuals of roughly the same age who are linked by common interests

Resocialization

The process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors

Self

The uniquely human capacity of being able to see ourselves "from the outside"; the picture we gain of how others see us

Significant Other

An individual who significantly influences someone's life

Social Inequality

Giving privileges and obligations to one group of people while denying them to another

Socialization

The process by which people learn the characteristics of their group (the knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, and actions thought appropiate for them

Take The Role Of Other

Putting oneself in someone's shoes; understanding how someone else feels and thinks and thus anticipating how that person will act

Total Institution

A place in which people are cut off from the rest of society and are almost totally controlled by teh officials who run the palce

Piaget and the Development of Reasoning

The sensorimotor stage (birth-age 2; sucking, touching), preoperational stage (age 2-7; ability to use symbols), concrete operational stage (age 7-12; concrete reasoning abilities), formal operational stage (age 12+; capable of abstract thinking)

Id

Inborn drives that cause us to seek self-gratification

Ego

The balancing force between the id and the demands of society that suppress it

Superego

The conscience

Transitional Adulthood

A period of extended youth to the life course, also known as adultolescence

After studying the use of personal space in several cultures, what conclusion did Edward Hall reach regarding the amount of space people prefer?

The amount of personal space people prefer varies from one culture to another

Which three variables does the author recognize as being especially significant in determining one's social class?

Occupational prestige, income, and education

Macrosociology focuses on social interaction, what people do when they come together face-to-face i and in small groups, true or false?

False

Connie is an 82-year-old retired full professor taking undergraduate courses in deviance, criminology, and juvenile delinquency. Which sociological term most applies to Connie being 82 and an undergraduate student?

Status inconsistency

A(n) ______ designates social position while a(n) _______ designates socially expected behavior

Status; role

Which of the following statements summarizes the Thomas theorem?

If people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences

Culture is the broadest framework that determines the kind of people we become, true or false?

True

Social statuses have built-in norms that guide our behavior, true or false?

True

What were the basic components of the fourth social revolution?

Information and services

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