Small, juicy fruit
Grow on vines and bushes
Thin-skinned with tiny seeds
Can be eaten plain
Can be cooked or added into other items
Make fine jams and compotes
Characterized by thick rinds with bitter white pith
Thin exterior layer of colored skin known as zest
Citrus fruits are acidic
Flesh is segmented and juicy
Flavors vary from bitter to tart to sweet
Becoming increasingly available
Some have become very popular and are readily available
Others are only available through specialty purveyors
Ex: pomegranate, dragonfruit
Single largest fruit crop in the world
Due to the production of wine
Berries that grow in large clusters
Classified by color as white or black
Color and most flavor is found in the skin
Usually eaten raw
Dried grapes are raisins
Members of the gourd family
Divided into two general types
Sweet (or dessert) melons
All melons are almost 90% water
Usually not cooked
Should be allowed to ripen on the vine as long as possible. Leave on counter a few days before cutting them.
Thin skin and firm flesh surrounding a central core containing small seeds called pips or carpels
Apples, Pears, Quince
Each type has many varieties
stone fruits (drupes)
Grown on shrubs or trees
Thin skin, soft flesh and one woody stone or pit, tend to be fragile and bruise easily
Originated in China, grown worldwide
Excellent dried, often used in liqueurs and brandies
Stone Fruits include:
Peaches, Nectarines, Plums
Native to the world's hot, tropical or subtropical regions
Readily available in the United States
All can be eaten fresh, without cooking
Go well with rich or spicy meat, fish and poultry
fruits have high water content. they're usually
75-95% water & are low in fat and protein
fruits are an excellent source of ____ and their ______ provide energy
citrus, melons, berries have vitamin _ that can be destroyed in cooking
deep yellow and green fruits high in vitamin
usda grading for fruit is
voluntary, not mandated
highest grade (fancy) is used for
food service productions use fruit graded...
lower graded fruit used in..
jellies and jams
Subjected to ionizing radiation
Enzymatic browning can be retarded by immersing cut fruit in an acidic solution
Solid pack - little or no water added
Water pack - added water or fruit juice
Syrup pack - light, medium or heavy sugar syrup
many fruits are packed iqf
oldest technique to preserve fruits
jams vs jellies
Fruit gel made from fruit pulp and sugar vs
Fruit gel made from fruit juice and sugar
*jams are more solid than jellies
Fruit gel that contains large chunks of whole fruits
Citrus jelly that also contains unpeeled slices of citrus fruits
includes a wide range of vegetables used for their heads, flowers or leaves.
Generally quick growing, cool weather crops.
Dark green leaves with white ribs. Used like celery in Asian dishes. Korean kim chee is made from this.
Green or Red. Enjoyed raw or cooked
Large ruffled, curly or bumpy leaves, Typically boiled, stuffed or used in soups. Generally bitter in flavor. Ornamental or flowering kale - is edible, generally used as decoration or garnish.
is edible, generally used as decoration or garnish.
A cross breed between a cabbage and turnips.
A mild delicate flavor, well suited for stir fry cooking.
Curly or ruffled leaves, often substituted for regular cabbage.
king of the cabbage family
have a strong nutty flavor--the smaller the better
served hot or cold, best when steamed
Classified as a fruit by botanists re: they develop from the ovary of flowering plants and contain one or more seeds.
Asian or Western varieties.
Tomatillos - Mexican tomatoes - a tart, lemony flavor.
peppers: the ___ the hotter. ____ is the sweetest color
gourds and squash
Cucumbers - pickling or slicing. Shipped covered in wax to maintain moisture and appearance.
Winter - rarely
mushrooms and truffles
green olives are ___ while black olives are____
green=unripe, black = ripe
olives are ___ while raw and must be pickled before eating
Stong flavored, very aromatic members of the lily family.
pods and seeds
Red kidney beans
Great northern beans
baby vegetables are either:
Hybrids bred to be true miniatures or
Regular varieties picked before maturity
offer highly perishable items, those with short growing seasons and regional specialties.
hearty veggies stored at blank temp, while delicate stored at blank temp
40°F to 60°F....34°F TO 40°F
store delicate greens away from fruits because
they give off ethylene gas
most veggies are ___ percent water
veggies are low in
fat and calories
most veggies are made of
Process uses ionizing radiation to sterilize food
Destroys bacteria, parasites and insects
Does not affect the taste and texture of foods
Surface contaminants from soil, water and handling can spread food-borne illnesses.
MOST COMMON CAUSE OF FOOD-BORNE ILLNESS IS FROM HUMAN INVOLVEMENT! -90%)
Proper washing essential
Remove tags, ties
Do not soak. Wash uncut under cold running water, 10ºF warmer than produce
Almost as convenient as canned
Severely inhibits the growth of microorganisms that cause spoilage
Grading the same as canned
IQF (individually quick-frozen)
Took bag of carrots, put in freezer in tray, then take it out to use in off-season
Drying dramatically alters the flavor, texture and appearance of vegetables
Loss of moisture when drying concentrates the flavors and sugars in the plant
Drying greatly extends shelf life of vegetables