← Unit 3: Ancient Egypt Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All herodotes wrote that ancient egypt was the gift of the nile nile worlds longest river and early farmers settled near it in africa. runs from ethiopian highlands to the med. sea silt thanks to the annual flooding this is deposited on the land surrounding the river. It is very rich in nutrients papyrus native to the Nile Delta and was used for baskets, ropes, thatch roots, and rugs wheat primary crop grown in silt by egyptians nile this provides transportation, food, and fresh water lower egypt located around the nile river delta in NORTHERN egypt upper egypt located in the SOUTHERN part of egypt around the Nile River Valley delta land built up from soil carried downstream by a river and deposited at its mouth Narmer united Upper and Lower Egypt and formed the first egyptian dynasty dynasty line of rulers from 1 family memphis capital of Upper/Lower Egypt Kingdom old kingdom began around 2800 BC and preceded by 200 years of civil war. The internal fighting would cease and a strong centralized gov. will be eastablished theocracy type of government created in which there is a king/pharaoh pharaoh has absolute power and is the religious and political leader of the people Middle Kingdom around 2200 BC, kings of memphis lose power, war brakes out for control of egypt, and new dynasty begins hieroglyphics complex system of pictographic writing pigmented this type of paint was used on the hieroglyphics to make it colorful polythesistic belief in many gods/goddesses ra sun god horus god of sky isis goddess of protection seth god of chaos priests were some of the most important people in egyptian society. Helped egyptians practice their religion ka "soul" natural dehydration before mummifaication people witnessed this and it occured when a person was buried in the desert environment of North Africa mummification the preserving of the body embalming a process of removing the interal organs and try to preserve the body in lifelike manner canopic jars where organs were placed after removed from the body natron a salt/sodium rich substance in which was used for removing water from the body wood original coffins was usually made of... gold later coffins were made of real... sarcophagus a stone container in which was usually made from granite granite "black stone" cartouche a hieroglyphic name enclosed in a oval & adnored the coffin and sarchophagus stone most monuments, temples, and pyramds were made of... pyramids "aboveground tombs" old kingdom when did pyramids begin to be built for pharaohs? mastaba "step pyramid" sakkara step pyramid which overlooked memphis and was built for Djoser imhoter chief architect of djoser who designed sakkara giza pyramids were built on this plateau sneferu built the first SMOOTH sided pyramid great pyramid largest pyramid in the world that was built at giza khufu the great pyramid was built for this pharaoh who was the son of sneferu great sphinx looks over these pyramids at gize and is a huge statue with the body of a lion and the head of a man (khafre's head) valley of the kings pharaohs begin to be buried in underground tombs on the western bank f the nile across from luxor (thebes) grave robbers caused egyptian priests to bury the pharaoh underground 64 how many tombs were discovered in the valley of the kings new kingdom temples were first built during this era obelisks temples were decorated with art/hieroglyphics called ramses the great most powerful pharaoh in egyptian history who reigned for 66 years and was the greatest builder during the new kingdom, fathered 40-120 kids, and was a warrior king harem group of lovers KV5 where was ramses buried? King Tut a rather obsure pharaoh of the 18th dynasty who was the son of akhenaton and claimed the throne at age 10. Died at 18 king tuts the discovery of his tomb was the greatest archeological find in modern world history howard carter found king tuts tomb in 1922 in the valley of kings hatshepsut first known woman to be a pharaoh of both lower and upper egypt. also the first woman ruler of a civilization. her dad, thutmose 1 died and she claimed the throne 22 years how long was hatshepsut reign? dier el bahri where was hatshepsut temple that she built located at?