Unit 3: Ancient Egypt

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herodotes

wrote that ancient egypt was the gift of the nile

nile

worlds longest river and early farmers settled near it in africa. runs from ethiopian highlands to the med. sea

silt

thanks to the annual flooding this is deposited on the land surrounding the river. It is very rich in nutrients

papyrus

native to the Nile Delta and was used for baskets, ropes, thatch roots, and rugs

wheat

primary crop grown in silt by egyptians

nile

this provides transportation, food, and fresh water

lower egypt

located around the nile river delta in NORTHERN egypt

upper egypt

located in the SOUTHERN part of egypt around the Nile River Valley

delta

land built up from soil carried downstream by a river and deposited at its mouth

Narmer

united Upper and Lower Egypt and formed the first egyptian dynasty

dynasty

line of rulers from 1 family

memphis

capital of Upper/Lower Egypt Kingdom

old kingdom

began around 2800 BC and preceded by 200 years of civil war. The internal fighting would cease and a strong centralized gov. will be eastablished

theocracy

type of government created in which there is a king/pharaoh

pharaoh

has absolute power and is the religious and political leader of the people

Middle Kingdom

around 2200 BC, kings of memphis lose power, war brakes out for control of egypt, and new dynasty begins

hieroglyphics

complex system of pictographic writing

pigmented

this type of paint was used on the hieroglyphics to make it colorful

polythesistic

belief in many gods/goddesses

ra

sun god

horus

god of sky

isis

goddess of protection

seth

god of chaos

priests

were some of the most important people in egyptian society. Helped egyptians practice their religion

natural dehydration

before mummifaication people witnessed this and it occured when a person was buried in the desert environment of North Africa

mummification

the preserving of the body

embalming

a process of removing the interal organs and try to preserve the body in lifelike manner

canopic jars

where organs were placed after removed from the body

natron

a salt/sodium rich substance in which was used for removing water from the body

wood

original coffins was usually made of...

gold

later coffins were made of real...

sarcophagus

a stone container in which was usually made from granite

granite

"black stone"

cartouche

a hieroglyphic name enclosed in a oval & adnored the coffin and sarchophagus

stone

most monuments, temples, and pyramds were made of...

pyramids

"aboveground tombs"

old kingdom

when did pyramids begin to be built for pharaohs?

mastaba

"step pyramid"

sakkara

step pyramid which overlooked memphis and was built for Djoser

imhoter

chief architect of djoser who designed sakkara

giza

pyramids were built on this plateau

sneferu

built the first SMOOTH sided pyramid

great pyramid

largest pyramid in the world that was built at giza

khufu

the great pyramid was built for this pharaoh who was the son of sneferu

great sphinx

looks over these pyramids at gize and is a huge statue with the body of a lion and the head of a man (khafre's head)

valley of the kings

pharaohs begin to be buried in underground tombs on the western bank f the nile across from luxor (thebes)

grave robbers

caused egyptian priests to bury the pharaoh underground

64

how many tombs were discovered in the valley of the kings

new kingdom

temples were first built during this era

obelisks

temples were decorated with art/hieroglyphics called

ramses the great

most powerful pharaoh in egyptian history who reigned for 66 years and was the greatest builder during the new kingdom, fathered 40-120 kids, and was a warrior king

harem

group of lovers

KV5

where was ramses buried?

King Tut

a rather obsure pharaoh of the 18th dynasty who was the son of akhenaton and claimed the throne at age 10. Died at 18

king tuts

the discovery of his tomb was the greatest archeological find in modern world history

howard carter

found king tuts tomb in 1922 in the valley of kings

hatshepsut

first known woman to be a pharaoh of both lower and upper egypt. also the first woman ruler of a civilization. her dad, thutmose 1 died and she claimed the throne

22 years

how long was hatshepsut reign?

dier el bahri

where was hatshepsut temple that she built located at?

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