A line spectrum is produced when an electron moves from one energy level to a ______ ______ ______.
Lower Energy Level
The Bohr model of the atom was an attempt to explain hydrogen's ____-_________ ______
According to the Bohr model of the atom, the single electron of a hydrogen atom circles the nucleus in _______, ______ ______.
Specific, allowed orbits
Louis de Broglie's research suggested what?
Electrons should be considered as waves confirmed to the space around an atomic nucleus.
All of the following describe the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, except....
A. it states, that it is impossible to determine, simultaneously, both the position and velocity of an electron or any other particle.
B. it is one of the fundamental principles of our present understanding of light and matter.
C. it helped lay the foundation for the modern quantum theory.
D. it helps to locate an electron in an atom.
D. it helps to locate an electron in an atom.
The quantum number that indicates the position of an orbital about the three axes in space is the ______ quantum number.
The number of sub-levels within each energy level of an atom is equal to the value of the _______ ______ _______.
Principal quantum number
The spin quantum number indicates that the number of possible spin states for an electron in an orbital is ?
The set of orbitals that are dumbbell shaped and directed along the x, y, z axes are called _____ _______.
A spherical electron cloud surrounding an atomic nucleus would best represent an _ _______.
That statement that an electron occupies the lowest available energy orbital is?
The Aufbau Principle
"Orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any is occupied by a second electron, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals must have the same spin" is a statement of ?
Which of the following rules requires that each of the P-orbitals at a particular energy level receive on electron before any of them can have two electrons?
If the S and P sub-levels of the highest main energy level of an atom are filled, how many electrons are in this main energy level?
In Bohr's model of the atom, where are the electrons and protons located?
The electrons move around the protons, which are at the center of the atom.
The shape (not the size) of an electron cloud is determined by the electron's ______.
If the spin of one electron in an orbital is clockwise, what is the spin of the other electron in that orbital?
Emission of light from an atom occurs when an electron ?
Drops from a higher to a lower energy level.
T or F: The Heisenberg uncertainty principle states that it is impossible to detect the position of an electron or velocity of an electron.
T or F: Although the precise location of an electron cannot be determined, it is possible to determine the probability that an electron will occupy a certain region around the nucleus.
T or F: An element can be identified by the characteristic bright-line atomic emission spectrum it can produce.
T or F: Valence refers to the total number of electrons that exist in the orbitals that occupy the outermost energy level of an atom.
Electromagnetic radiation is a kind of (1) ________ that behaves like a(n) (2)________ as it travels through space. (3)_________ is one type of electromagnetic radiation. Other examples include X-rays, radio waves, and microwaves. All waves can be characterized by their wavelength, amplitude, frequency, and (4)_______. The shortest distance between equivalent points on a continuous wave is called a(n) (5)________. The height of a wave from the origin to a crest or from the origin to a trough is the (6)_______. (7)_________ is the number of waves that pass a given point in one second. The SI unit for frequency is the (8)_____, which is equivalent to one wave per second.
Word Bank: Amplitude; Energy; Frequency; Hertz; Light; Wave; Wavelength; Speed
If twice the length of A passes a stationary point every second, what is the frequency of the wave?
According to Planck's theory, for a given frequency, v, matter can emit or absorb energy only in
Whole-number multiples of hv
The ______ is the phenomenon in which electrons are emitted from a metal's surface when light of a certain frequency shines on it.
T or F: The fact that only certain colors appear in an element's atomic emission spectrum indicates that only certain frequencies of light are emitted.
T or F: The neon atoms in a neon sign emit their characteristic color of light as they absorb energy.
What is the relationship between the size on an S-orbital and the principal energy level in which it is found?
Its size increases as energy levels increase.
What is the shape of a P-orbital? How many P-orbitals are there in a sub-level?
It is shaped like a peanut, or a dumbbell. It has 3 P-orbitals in a sub-level.
How many D-orbitals are there in a give sub-level? How many total electrons can the D-Orbitals in a sub-level hold?
5, and they can hold a total of 10 electrons.
How likely is it that an electron occupying a P or D-orbital would be found very near an atoms nucleus?
Not very likely, because the shape of these orbitals locates most of the electrons further from the nucleus.
Bohr's model of the atom predicted the ______ of the lines in the hydrogen's atomic emission spectrum.
According to Bohr's atomic model, the smaller an electron's orbit, the _______ the atom's energy level.
According to Bohr's atomic model, the larger an electron's orbit, the ________ the atoms energy level.
Bohr proposed that when energy is added to a hydrogen atom, its ________ moves to a higher-energy orbit.
According to Bohr's atomic model, the hydrogen atom emits a photon corresponding to the difference between the _________ associated with the two orbits it transitions between.
Bohr's atomic model failed to explain the _________________ of elements other than hydrogen.
Atomic Emission spectrum
If you look closely, you see the wavelength of a fast moving car? Yes or No? Why?
No, its wavelength would be to small to be detected.
The modern model of the atom that treats electrons as waves is?
Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom
What states that it is impossible to know both the velocity and the position of a particle at the same time?
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
A three-dimensional region around the nucleus representing the probability of finding an electron is the?
Originally applied to the hydrogen atom, this led to the quantum mechanical model of the atom.
Schrodinger Wave Equation
How do the Bohr Model and he quantum mechanical model of the atom differ in how they describe electrons?
Bohr's model doesn't show the wave's properties of electrons, while the quantum mechanical model does.
The maximum number of (electrons, orbitals) related to each principal energy level equals 2n2.
The arrangement of electrons in an atom is called the atom's (1)_______. Electrons in an atom tend to assume the arrangement that gives the atom the (2)_________ possible energy. This arrangement of electrons is the most (3)______ arrangement and is called the atom's (4)______________. Three rules define how electrons can be arranged in an atom's orbitals. The (5)____________ states that each electron occupies the lowest energy orbital available. The (6)___________ states that a maximum of two electrons may occupy a single atomic orbital, but only if the electrons have opposite (7)______. (8)______ states that single electrons with the same spin must occupy each equal-energy orbital before additional electrons with opposite spins occupy the same orbitals.
Word Bank: Aufbau Principle; Electron Configuration; Ground-state electron configuration; Hund's Rule: Lower; Pauli Exclusion Principle; Spins; Stable
(1) Electron Configuration
(4) Ground-state electron configuration
(6) Pauli Exclusion Principle
(8) Hund's Rule
In an electron-dot structure, the element's symbol represents the ?
Atom's nucleus and inner-level electrons
The set of frequencies of the electromagnetic waves emitted by the atoms of an element.
Atomic Emission Spectrum
A form of energy that exhibits wave like behavior as it travels through space.
A three dimensional region around the nucleus of an atom that describes an electron's probably location.
The emission of electrons from a metal's surface when light of a certain frequency shines on it.
Which of the following can you conclude based on the de Brogile equation?
A. Waves behave like particles
B. Most Particles are electrons
C. All matter has an associated wavelength
D. All matter behaves like particles
C. All matter has an associated wavelength
Describe the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.
It is impossible to know both the velocity and the position of a particle at the same time.
Electrons are in a temporary state called ________ _____ when energy is absorbed and when it loses energy it returns to _____ _____. The energy that electrons had, is released when it returns to the _____ _____, producing _____.
(in order) Excited state; ground state; ground state; waves
A ______ is a discrete amount of energy.
-Nothing can have less energy than a _______.
- Photon carries a ______.
- Energy can be a particle
__________ Quantum Number- Main energy Level=n
___________ Quantum Number- Sub-levels= s=0 p=1 d=2 f=3
___________ Quantum Number- Specific Orbital
___________ Quantum Number- Direction of Spin
(in order) Principal, Orbital, Magnetic, Spin
Only 2 electrons can exist in one orbital, and only when the electrons have opposite spins.
Pauli Exclusion Principle