Apprehension about a future threat
response to an immediate threat
arousal, anxiety, and stress
which three terms are used interchangeably, as synonyms for one another
refers to the composite (blend) of physiological (bodily) and psychological (mental) activity in a person at a given point in time
arousal, comatose, frenzied
____ levels vary naturally throughout the day and vary on a continuum from ____ (i.e., low) to ___ (i.e., high
arousal is or is not directionally associated with an event's pleasantness.
RAS (Reticular Activating System)
thalamic nuclei (Thalamus)
Brain mechanisms involved in arousal include the
The __ is a network of nerve fibers that originates in the medulla oblongata (brain stem area) and proceeds up through the midbrain into the neocortex, the place where thought is processed.
is to detect new and novel stimuli. ---alerts the brain ''
The task of the RAS is to __ __ ___ ___When something new or different is perceived in the environment, the RAS alerts the ___to possible danger by causing an ''arousal state.'' If a stimulus, such as a sound, is repetitive in nature, the RAS calms the brain and causes it to enter various peaceful states, depending upon the nature of the stimulus.
Arousal in short spurts is ____. We perform better under ___ arousal, but optimal performance varies with task difficulty
a negative emotional state characterized by
scanning of the environment and
associated physiological activation/arousal
2 COMPONENTS OF ANXIETY
inital appraisal, emotional feeling, situationally based- behavioral response
Robert Levy's 3 stage cognitive model of emotion includes
The meaning of the event is determined by cognitive assessment, based upon cultural schemas.
Refers to bodily sensations that are felt as a result of cognitive appraisal.
Rapid breathing, tightness in the stomach, blood rushing to your head, and headache.
what physical feelings are associated with anxiety
situationally based behavioral response
this is the observable response carried out by an individual in response to the first two stages.
situationally based behavioral response
is usually automatic and instantaneous because it has been structured in the neural networks of the brain.
The brain automatically cognizes event in a particular way consistent with cultural schemas because of cultural learning and prior individual experience.
because they are structured within the nervous system, and cultural schemas play a central role in the construction of emotions through the cognitive construction of meanings with resulting physiological changes and behavioral actions.
why do situational based behavior seemed natural
refers to the fluid/situational aspects of anxiety. It is ever changing, and fluctuates in response to situational circumstances.
refers to a personality characteristic
it is an acquired behavioral tendency/disposition that influences behavior.
self report measures/scales
How are arousal and anxiety measured?
Individuals who have more trait anxiety typically experience higher state anxiety levels in highly competitive, evaluative situations.
However, this relationship is not perfect, but, in general, knowing an individual's trait anxiety level is usually helpful in predicting how he/she will respond in competitive, evaluative, or threatening situations.
Is trait and state anxiety related?
is any circumstance (real or perceived) that threatens a person's well-being.
when we atre stressed, our ability to ___ is impaired
A substantial imbalance between physical/psychological demand and response capability, under conditions where failure to meet that demand has important consequences.
is a process/series of events that leads to a particular event.
stimulis or response. process
Stress is not merely a ___ or a ____. It is a ___ by which we appraise and cope with environmental threats and challenges.
how stress effects us depends on how we ___, if we ____ we are in control
____ can also help when dealing with stress
The demand placed upon the individual, psychological and/or physical.
perception of demand
The individual's perception of this physical/psychological demand.
The individual's psychological/physical response to a perception of the situation.
The actual behavior of the individual under stress and the outcome of that behavior (i.e., success versus failure).
uncertainty & event importance
name 2 situational sources of stress
most common anxiety disorders are __
Disruptive fear of a particular object or situation
Fear out of proportion to actual threat
Awareness that fear is excessive
Must be severe enough to cause distress or interfere with job or social life
specific & social
2 types of phobia
Unwarranted, excessive fear of specific object or situation
Snakes, blood, flying, spiders, etc
Persistent, intense fear of social situations
Fear of negative evaluation or scrutiny
Sudden, intense episode of apprehension, terror, feelings of impending doom
Frequent panic attacks unrelated to specific situations
Recurrent unexpected panic attacks At least one of the attacks has been followed by at least 1 month of one or more of the following
Persistent concern about having additional panic attacks
Worry about the implications of the attack or its consequences
A significant change in behavior related to the attacks
Presence or absence of agoraphobiaThe panic attacks are not due to the direct physiologic effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medical condition
generalized anxiety disorder
Involves chronic, excessive, uncontrollable worry
Lasts at least 6 months
Interferes with daily life
obsessive compulsive disorder
Intrusive, persistent, and uncontrollable thoughts or urges
Experienced as irrational
Impulse to repeat certain behaviors or mental acts to avoid distress
Develops either before age 10 or during late adolescence/early adulthood
post traumatic stress disorder
Extreme response to severe stressor
Anxiety, avoidance of stimuli associated with trauma, emotional numbing
Exposure to a traumatic event that involves actual or threatened death or injury
Re-experiencing the traumatic event
Nightmares, intrusive thoughts, or images
Avoidance of stimuli
e.g., Refuse to walk on street where rape occurred
Decreased interest in others
Distant or estranged from others
Unable to experience positive emotions
Insomnia, irritability, hypervigilance, exaggerated startle response
3 categories of symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder
acute stress disorder
As many as 90% of rape victims experience
what is the difference between acute stress disorder & post traumatic stress disorder
¾ of those with anxiety disorder meet criteria for another disorder
____ are 2x as likely as men to have anxiety disorder except for OCD
Women may be more likely to report symptoms
Women more likely to experience childhood sexual abuse
Women show more biological stress reactivity
why are women more likely to have anxiety disorders
genetics, negative life events, personality tendencies such as negativity
Name some risk factors
psychological experiences emphasize
cognitive behavoral therapy
Increase patient's awareness of thoughts that make physical sensations threatening
Patient learns to challenge and change maladaptive beliefs
2. anti depressants
Drugs that reduce anxiety