what are kingdom plantae?
Kingdom Plantae share a common ancestry that likely begins with what division?
what pigments do kingdom plantae use
chlorophyll a and b, carotenes, and xanthophylls
what do kingdom plantae possess?
chloroplasts, amylose(starch), cell walls
what are the cell walls in kingdom plantae made up of
cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectin
what kind of life cycle do kingdom plantae have?
haplodiplontic life cycle called Alternation of Generations where the plant exists in two multicellular states during the life cycle
describe what the alternation of generations means in kingdom plantae
all plant groups use some variation on a basic sexual life cycle scheme where the plant alternates between two multicellular "generations"
what is a gametophyte?
n; gamete producing plant
what is a sporophyte?
2n; spore producing plant
what are the two reproductive structures in kingdom plantae?
gametangium and sporangium
describe the gametangium
gamete producing structure for the gametophyte
what is the male gametangium referred to as?
what is the female gametangium referred to as?
what do gametangium reproductive structures produce cell wise?
they produce haploid cells through mitosis
describe the sporangium
spore producing structure for the sporophyte
what is the male sporangium
what is the female sporangium
what do sporangium reproductive structures produce cell wise?
it houses the spore mother cell (2n), which produces haploid cells through meiosis
what is a kind of non-vascular plant
describe embryophytes (mosses)
small herbaceous plants that lack roots, leaves and vascular systems; most do not have full cuticle or stomates; many are heterosporous (produce male and female gametophytes), and they are represented by many genera
what does heterosporous mean?
produce male and female gametophytes; the condition where there are two spore morphs, the microspore and the megaspore, which give rise to the microgametophyte and megagametophyte
what are two genera that embryophytes are represented by?
moss and marchantia
what is homosporous?
where there is a single spore type that gives rise to a hermaphroditic gametophyte; it will posses both types of gametangia
what kind of sporocity do vascular plants have?
they can be heterosporous or homosporous
what are two kinds of vascular plants
ferns and allies
describe vascular plants
they have true leaves, roots, and stems (rhizomes); you can separate the groups either by leaf morphology or sporocity; they require standing water to complete life cycle due to flagellated sperm
what do vascular plants require to survive?
why do vascular plants require standing water to survive?
they need it to complete their life cycle due to flagellated sperm
they are represented by two extant genera; they have photosynthetic stems but lack true leaves; they only have rhizoids
are psilophtya homoporous or heteroporous
what kind of morphology to psilophyta have?
what do psilophyta lack
what are compound sporangia called in psilophyta
they have one extant genus; they have well developed nodal stems with whorls of true leaves; their true roots are rhizomes; they have homosporous spores with elators
what are the true roots of sphenophyta called?
where are the sporangia borne on
what are the sporangia borne on sporangiophores clustered into
what is a dikaryotic cell
the nuclei don't fuse
true or false: plants can expand their chromosome number
what does it mean that kingdom plantae have haplodiplontic life cycles called alternation of generations?
they spend their life as two separate individuals
describe the alternation of generations chart?
gametophytes (n) make gametes (n) in the gametangia using mitosis; the gametes are made into sporophytes(2n) in the syngamy by mitosis; the sporophytes create spores(n) in the sporangium using meiosis; the spores create more gametophytes in the soil using mitosis.
what are the most derived of land plants?
describe the land plant evolution chart
deriving from the algal ancestor, first was non-vascular plants, then seedless vascular plants, then naked seeded vascular plants, and finally flowering vascular plants.
what is included in embryophytes
non-vascular, seedless vascular, naked seeded vascular, and flowering vascular
what is included in tracheophytes
seedless vascular, naked seeded vascular, and flowering vascular
what is included in spermatophytes
naked seeded vascular and flowering vascular
what are three kinds of mosses
liverwort (marchantia sp.), Haircap (Polytrichum sp.), and anthocerotophyta (horn warts)
what division is marchantia (liverwort) in
what division is polytrichum (haircap) in
what does an antheridium contain?
stalk, sterile jacket, sperm
what does an archegonium contain
stalk, ventour around egg, neck
how are the archegonium in liverwort located
they are clustered together
what does sporagnium contain
foot, cita(stalk), and sporangia
how are the sporangium in liverwort
how are the sporangium in moss
what are division are horsetails
what division are whisk ferns
what division are traditional ferns
describe characteristics of traditional ferns
all are homosporous (one spore, one gametophyte, both parts)
describe characteristics of psilophyta
green sticks, homosporous
describe characteristics of sphenophyta
reproductive cone (strobilus), vegetative branch
what are the five divisions
hepatophyta, bryophyta, psilophyta, sphenophyta, and pterophyta