AP Gov Sabato Judicial Branch

86 terms by nward121 

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Checks on the Judiciary

Congress can alter the Court's jurisdiction
Congress can propose constitutional amendments to
reverse judicial decisions
Congress can impeach and remove federal judges
President appoints all federal judges (with the "advice
and consent" of the Senate)

Original Jurisdiction

All cases arising under the
Constitution and laws or
treaties of the United States
All cases of admiralty or
maritime jurisdiction
Cases in which the United
States is a party
Controversies between a
state and citizens of another
state (*11th Amendment -
1795)
Controversies between two
or more states

Controversies between
citizens of different states
Controversies between
citizens of the same state
claiming land grants in
different states
Controversies between a
state (or its citizens) and
foreign states (or its
citizens)
All cases affecting
ambassadors or other public
ministers

art III section 1

gives Congress the power to establish other federal
courts as needed, establishes life tenure (with good behavior)
and protection against salary reduction

art III section 2

specifies the judicial power of the Supreme Court
and discusses original and appellate jurisdiction; requires all
federal crimes to be tried by a jury in the state where the crime occurred

art 3 section 3

defines treason as levying war against the US or
giving aid to its enemies; mandates at least two witnesses AND requires the chief justice too preside over presidential impeachments

SC

was set at five
associate justices and one
chief justice; it changed size
several times until it was
finally set at nine justices in
1869

The Judiciary Act of 1789

established a three-tiered
federal court system
Supreme court justices
served as circuit court
judges

early supreme court

faced many problems making it
ineffective (frequent changes in personnel, limited space for
its operations, no clerical support, no system of reporting its
decisions, circuit travel)

Chisholm v. Georgia (1793)

Held that states did not enjoy sovereign immunity from lawsuits brought by residents of other states (Overruled by the 11th Amendment-provides that states may not be sued in federal court by citizens of another state or country without the consent of the states being sued)

John Marshall

brought prestige to the Court
through his leadership
He discontinued the practice of seriatim and replaced it with
a single court opinion (usually unanimous) written by the
chief justice

Fletcher v. Peck (1810)

Supreme Court case that established the Court's power to invalidate state laws contrary to the Constitution; in this case, the Court prevented Georgia from rescinding a land grant even though it was fraudulently made.

Martin v. Hunter's Lessee (1816),

The Supreme Court case that gave the Supreme Court the power to review the decision of the highest state courts if they involve a federal law or the federal Constitution.

Cohens v. Virginia (1821)

Case that reinforced federal supremacy by establishing the right of the Supreme Court to review decisions of state supreme courts in questions involving the powers of the federal government.

McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)

the Supreme Court upheld the power of the national government and denied the right of a state to tax the federal bank using the Constitution's supremacy clause. The Court's broad interpretation of the necessary and proper clause paved the way for later rulings upholding expansive federal powers

writ of mandamus

Court order directing an official to perform an official duty.

Scott v. Sandford (1857)

Supreme Court decision ruling that a slave who had escaped to a free state enjoyed no rights as a citizen and that Congress had no authority to ban slavery in the territories

Pollock v. Farmers' Loan &
Trust Company (1895)

dealt with a national income tax passed with congress; USSC found the tax violated the Constitution since it was a direct tax that had not been properly apportioned by state

United States v. Nixon (1974)

The 1974 case in which the Supreme Court unanimously held that the doctrine of executive priveledge was implicit in the Constitution but could not be extended to protect documents relevant to criminal prosecutions

Just read this---no answer

The Supreme Court has been
much more willing to declare
state laws unconstitutional

Era 1

Nation versus State (1790-1860) - Marshall and Taney Courts

Era 2

Regulating the National Economy (1860-1940) - Application of 14th Amendment to protect businesses; "liberty of contract"

Era 3

Civil Rights & Civil Liberties (1940-1970) - Warren Court

Era 4

National Referee (1970-Present)

american judicial system

dual system consisting of the
federal court system and the judicial systems of the fifty states

structure of the system

three tiered with trial courts, appellate
courts, and high courts (also appellate courts)

courts

provide an arena for two parties to bring their conflict before an
impartial arbiter (judge)--The theory is that justice will emerge out of the struggle between
two contending points of view

True

The vast majority of all criminal and civil cases involve state law
are tried in state courts. True or False?

fact

More than 90% of all cases end in the court of original
jurisdiction

appellate jurisdiction

a court's ability to review cases
already decided by a trial court; usually review legal
procedures, not evidence

criminal cases

usually under the state judicial system, but
increasing federal crimes is increasing the workload of federal
courts

criminal law

refers to the body of law that regulates individual
conduct and is enforced by state and national governments

civil law

refers to a body of law that regulates the
conduct and relationships between private individuals
or companies

fact

Many civil disputes are settled out of court before,
during, or just before the end of a trial

Civil cases

involve lawsuits to recover something of
value: the right to vote, fair treatment, or monetary
compensation for an item or service that cannot be
recovered

fact

Federal judges can only decide "cases" or "controversies" -
actual disputes rather than hypothetical ones; the judiciary is
essentially passive, dependent on others to take initiative

plaintiff

brings a complaint or charge against another party

fact

sometimes the U.S.
Government can be the plaintiff or the defendant

defendant

defends against the party who is suing

litigants

participants in a case

standing to sue

a serious interest in a case in order to challenge a law

justiciable disputes

issues that are capable of being settled
by legal methods

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954)

Segregated schools were inherently unequal and did not uphold the 13th or 14th Ammendments, because they deprived children of equal protection under the laws

lawyers

translate policies into legal language and then enforce
or challenge them

lawyers (equality of access)

available to all levels of society; public interest
law firms, public defenders, legal insurance

constitutional courts

courts of appeal, and the Supreme
Court are:

judicial review

All constitutional courts can exercise:

Legislative courts

set by Congress under its implied
powers for special purposes: U.S. territorial courts, U.S. Court
of Veterans Appeals, Court of Military Appeals, Tax Court,
etc.

Legislative courts judges

appointed by the president
and confirmed by the Senate, but serve fixed, limited terms;
not protected by the Constitution

Federal district courts

federal trial courts of
original jurisdiction created by the Judiciary Act of
1789

federal district court

Every state and territory has at least one - California, Texas, and New York have four

fact

The bulk of federal judicial work takes place in the district courts

Cases heard in federal district courts

They involve the federal government as a party
 They present a federal question based on a claim under the U.S.
Constitution, a treaty with another nation, or a federal statute. This
is called federal question jurisdiction and it can involve criminal
or civil law
 They involve civil suits in which citizens are from different states
(diversity of citizenship), and the amount of money at issue is more
than $75,000
 Supervision of bankruptcy proceedings
 Admiralty and maritime law cases

U.S. attorney

Each federal judicial district has a _____ who is nominated by the
president and confirmed by the Senate;
chief law enforcement officer for that
district

U.S. attorney

_____ have considerable
discretion in deciding to pursue criminal
or civil investigations or file charges
against an individual or corporation

fact

Other staff include clerks, bailiffs, law
clerks, stenographers, court reporters,
probation officers, federal magistrates,
and U.S. marshals

losing party (litigant), court of appeals (circuit court)

The _______ in a case heard and decided in a
federal district court can appeal the decision to the appropriate_______

Circuit Courts of Appeals

The _____were created by the
Judiciary Act of 1789; currently there are 11.

D.C. Court of Appeals

handles most appeals involving federal regulatory commissions and agencies

Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit

deals with patents and contract and financial claims against the federal government

chief judge

Each circuit is supervised by a ____ (most senior
judge under 65, seven year term)

three, en banc

In deciding cases, judges are divided into rotating _____- judge panels (active judges, visiting judges, and retired judges); all circuit judges may choose to sit together ____ to decide a case by majority vote

courts of appeals

have no original
jurisdiction and are not trial courts

courts of appeals

Congress has granted these courts appellate
jurisdiction over two general categories;
Appeals from criminal and civil cases from the district courts
(90%)
Appeals from administrative agencies (10%)

D.C. Court of Appeals

Most administrative agency appeals are heard by the_______; *2nd most important court in
the nation

Supreme court

Once a decision is made by a federal court of appeals, a litigant no longer as an automatic right to an appeal; The losing party may submit a petition to the _____, but it grants few requests

courts of appeals

In general, _____ try to correct errors of law
and procedure that have occurred in the lower courts or
agencies; they do not hear new testimony

breif

written argument

fact

Decisions of any court of appeals are binding on only the
district courts within that circuit; decisions of the U.S.
Supreme Court are binding throughout the entire nation
and establish national precedents

stare decisis

The reliance on precedents (past decisions) to formulate
decision in new cases is called

court of appeals, state supreme courts

The Supreme Court (court of last resort) reviews cases
from the ______ and the _______
and acts as the final interpreter of the U.S. Constitution

Original jurisdiction for the Supreme Court

Cases involving foreign diplomats
Cases involving a state (vs. the United States or another state(s) or
a foreign nation)

fact

The Supreme Court only hears cases from states if they
involve a federal question and all potential remedies in
the state court system have been exhausted

supreme court

It decides major cases with tremendous policy
significance

supreme court

ensures uniformity in the interpretation
of national laws and the Constitution

supreme court

resolves conflicts among the states

supreme court

maintains the supremacy of
national law in the federal system

fact

The Supreme Court operates with few support staff

Senate

All federal court judges and justices must be nominated by the president and confirmed by the ____

strict constructionist

a person who interprets the Constitution in a way that allows the federal government to take only those actions the Constitution specifically says it can take

nomination criteria

Competence (Experience) - some
prior judicial or governmental
experience; ethical behavior

Ideology or Policy Preferences -
share political ideology of the
president; strict constructionist

Rewards - personal friend of the
president or party loyalist/activist;
Hugo Black & Earl Warren

Pursuit of Political Support -
appointments of women or
minorities to gain votes

Religion - Desire to
keep religious diversity
(Catholics, Protestants,
and Jews) on the Court

Race, Ethnicity, and
Gender - Only two
African Americans and
four women have served
on the Court

fact----study

When the president narrows the list of possible
nominees, names are sent to the Federal Bureau of
Investigations for background checks
Names have traditionally been submitted to the
American Bar Association (ABA) for ratings -
Highly Qualified, Qualified, Not Qualified

Senate Judiciary Committee

After a formal nomination is made and sent to the
Senate, the ______ begins its
investigation

supreme court cases

must contain a federal question

solicitor general

handles most appeals
for the United States before the Supreme Court and
has a close relationship with the Court

cases heard by SC (trends)

1. The federal government is the party asking for
review

2. Conflict among the lower (circuit) courts

3. Case presents a civil rights or civil liberties question

4. Case involves ideological and/or policy preferences
of the justices

5. Case has significant social or political interest;
presence of interest group amicus curiae briefs

per curiam decision

decision without explanation

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