Chapter 19 Blood Vessels (lecture)

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Hello everyone, this set was made for Dr. Halls A&P 2 class from USF in the spring of 2012, hope it helps!

26) Which of the choices below does not explain why low capillary pressures are desirable?
A) Capillaries are fragile and high pressures would rupture them.
B) Most capillaries are extremely permeable and thus even low pressures force solute-containing fluid out of the bloodstream.
C) Low blood pressure is more desirable than high blood pressure

: C

51) The baroreceptors in the carotid sinus and aortic arch are sensitive to which of the following?
A) a decrease in carbon dioxide
B) changes in arterial pressure
C) a decrease in oxygen levels
D) an increase in oxygen levels

: B

17) Blood flow to the skin ________.
A) is controlled mainly by decreasing pH
B) increases when environmental temperature rises
C) increases when body temperature drops so that the skin does not freeze
D) is not an important source of nutrients and oxygen for skin cells

: B

33) Modified capillaries that are lined with phagocytes are called ________.
A) sinuses
B) sinusoids
C) thoroughfare channels
D) anastomoses

: B

46) Normal average blood pressure for a newborn baby is ________.
A) 120/80
B) 90/55
C) 150/90
D) 130/80

: B

25) The term ductus venosus refers to ________.
A) a fetal shunt that bypasses the lungs
B) damage to the valves in the veins, leading to varicose veins
C) a condition of the aged in which the arteries lose elasticity
D) a special fetal vessel that allows umbilical blood to bypass the liver

: D

20) Which tunic of an artery is most responsible for maintaining blood pressure and continuous blood circulation?
A) tunica intima
B) tunica media
C) tunica externa
D) basement membrane

: B

30) Histologically, the ________ is squamous epithelium supported by a sparse connective tissue layer.
A) tunica intima
B) tunica media
C) tunica externa
D) tunica adventitia

: A

14) Which of the following processes provides a long-term response to changes in blood pressure?
A) neural controls
B) baroreceptor-initiated reflexes
C) chemoreceptor-initiated reflexes
D) renal regulation

: D

37) Mechanisms that do not help regulate blood pressure include ________.
A) nervous control that operates via reflex arcs involving baroreceptors, chemoreceptors, and higher brain centers
B) the dural sinus reflex
C) renal regulation via the renin-angiotensin system of vasoconstriction
D) chemical controls such as atrial natriuretic peptide

: B

7) The arteries that are also called distributing arteries are the ________.
A) elastic arteries
B) muscular arteries
C) arterioles
D) capillaries

: B

18) Which of the choices below reflects the balance (or imbalance) between the direction and amount of fluid that flows across the capillary walls?
A) hydrostatic and osmotic pressure
B) hydrostatic pressure only
C) blood volume and viscosity
D) plasma and formed element concentration

: A

27) Which of the choices below does not involve tissue perfusion?
A) delivery of oxygen and nutrients to, and removal of wastes from, tissue cells
B) gas exchange in the lungs
C) absorption of nutrients from the digestive tract
D) blood clotting

: D

42) A patient with essential hypertension might have pressures of 200/120 mm Hg. This hypertensive state could result in all of the following changes except ________.
A) increased work of the left ventricle
B) increased incidence of coronary artery disease
C) increased damage to blood vessel endothelium
D) decreased size of the heart muscle

: D

24) The hepatic portal vein ________.
A) is actually an artery
B) carries nutrient-rich blood to the liver
C) carries oxygen-rich blood from the liver to the viscera
D) carries blood from the liver to the inferior vena cava

: B

9) The pulse pressure is ________.
A) systolic pressure plus diastolic pressure
B) systolic pressure minus diastolic pressure
C) systolic pressure divided by diastolic pressure
D) diastolic pressure plus 1/3 (systolic pressure plus diastolic pressure)

: B

43) The short-term controls of blood pressure, mediated by the nervous system and bloodborne chemicals, primarily operate via all but which of the following?
A) reflex arcs involving baroreceptors
B) altering blood volume
C) reflex arcs associated with vasomotor fibers
D) chemoreceptors

: B

Vasodilation is a widening of the lumen due to smooth muscle contraction.

False

Arteries supplying the same territory are often merged with one another, forming arterial anastomoses.

True

Arterial pressure in the pulmonary circulation is much higher than in the systemic circulation because of its proximity to the heart.

False

The pulmonary circulation does not directly serve the metabolic needs of body tissues.

True

Hypotension is generally considered systolic blood pressure that is below 100 mm Hg.

True

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