A&P1 ch.4 tissues

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Tissue

a group of cells that usually have a common origin in an embryo and function together to carry out specialized activities.
-Common embryonic origin= all came from one original tissue cell.
-Are groups of similar cells
-Have a common function

Histology

study of tissues

Pathologists

(looks for tissue changes that indicate disease)
A physician that specializes in laboratory studiees of cells and tissues to help other doctors make accurate diagnoses.

Epithelial
Connective
Muscle
Nervous

What are the four basic tissues?

Epithelial Tissues

Cover surfaces, line hollow organs, cavities and ducts, and forms glands
(it covers everything)
This tissue allows the body to interact with both its internal and external environments.

Connective Tissue

Protects and supports the body and its organs.
Material that is found between cells supports and binds structures together.
Stores energy reserve as fat.
Provides immunity to disease.
(Connects everything together)

Muscle Tissue

(moves us)
Is composed of cells specialized for contraction and generation of force.
In the process> muscles generate heat and warms the body through that action.

Nervous Tissue

Detects changes in a variety of conditions inside and outside the body.
Responds by generating nerve impulses.
aka nerve action potentials/generated by electrical signals.

Origin of Tissues

primary germ layers within the embryo

Endoderm

digestive tract, (inner layer) epithelium

Mesoderm

connective tissue, (middle) muscle, epithelium

Ectoderm

nerve tissue, (outter layer) epithelium

Cell Junctions

contact points between cell membranes.
Mostly Epithelial cells and some muscle and nerve cells are tightly joined in functional units.

tight junctions
adherens junctions
desmosomes
hemidesmosomes
gap junctions

What are the 5 most important types of cell junctions?

Tight Junctions

-made of strips of transmembrane proteins are weblike.
-Forms a watertight seal between cells to make them basically waterproof.
-examples are cells that line the stomach, bladder, intestines.
-keeps contents from these organs from leaking into blood and surrounding tissues.

Adherens Junctions

They have two parts: the plaque and cadherins.
Found in the epithelial cells. They help epithelial surfaces resist separation during various contractile activities, like food moving through the intestines.

Cadherins

transmembrane glycoproteins that connect two different cells together by forming a link between cell membranes.
They are sticky because glyco=sugar.
one side inserts into the plaque and the other side sticks to a cadherin from an adjacent cell

Plaque

integral membrane proteins that densly line the intracellular side of the cell membrane. It attaches to both membrane proteins and microfilament.
Plaque and microfilaments form an adhesion belt that goes in a ring around the cell.

Desmosomes

Made of cadherin and plaque just like the adherins junctions, but has the additional protein called keratin an intermediate filament that extens from plaque on one side to plaque of the other side.
This contributes to the stability of the cell and tissue. looks like a spot weld.
These are found in cells the epidermis. They keep things together under tension.

Hemidesmosomes

Made of proteins called integrins that bind cells to an underlying basement membrane on the inferior surface of the cell. Do in extracellular space.
Integrins are transmembrane glycoproteins. They are atached to keratin proteins that extend from one side of the cell to the other. The protein that they attach to on the basement floor is called laminin.
Hemi=half.

Gap Junction

Have fluid filled protein tunnes connecting two cells called connexons.
Allow cell communication with ions and small molecules.
Helps conduct quick muscle and nerve impulses between cells like the heart, GI tract, and uterus.

Epithelial Tissues (basics of)

Closely packed cells forming continuous sheets.
Avascular- without blood vessels.
Nutrients diffuse in from connective tissue.
Good nerve supply.
Rapid cell division. faster than other tissues.

Epithelial tissue

the basement membrane. all sit on this membrane.

Basal lamina from epithelial cells &
Reticular lamina from connective tissue

What two parts make up the basement membrane?

holds epithelial cells to connective tissue

What is the basic function of the basement membrane?

Types of Epithelium

Covering and lining epithelium ie. epidermis of the skin, lining of blood vessels, ducts, body cavities.
Glandular epithelium ie. thyroid, adrenal, and sweat glands

simple= one cell layer thick
stratified = many cell layers thick
pseudostratified = single layer of cells of different heights (just looks like layers thick)

Classification of Epithelium by cells layers are?

squamous= flat
cuboidal = cube-shaped
columnar= tall columns
transitional= shape varies with tissue stretching

Classification of Epithelium by shape of cells are?

simple epithelium
stratified epithelium
pseudostratified columnar

Types of covering and lining epithelium are?

Simple Squamous Epithelium
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
Nonciliated Simple Columnar
Ciliated Simple Columnar Epithelium

What are the four different types of simple epithelium?

Simple Squamous Epithelium

Single layer of flat cells (our fast filters)
lines blood vessel and body cavities
the nuclei are centrally located
cells are in direct contact with each other
it is found where filtration or diffusion os necessary (thin), but not where stress occurs
Lines the heart, blood vessels lymphatic vessels, air sacs of lungs, kidneys, eardrum, serous membranes.

Simple Cuboidal Epithelium

Single layer of cube-shaped cells viewed from the side
Nuclei are round and centrally located
it lines kidneys, eyes, ovaries, thyroid gland, and pancreas
it's function is secretion and absorption

Nonciliated Simple Columnar

Single rectangular cells
Found in all of GI tract, ducts of glands and the gallbladder
There are two types:
-Goblet cells that secrete mucus
-Microvilli= fingerlike cytoplasmic projections

Ciliated Simple Columnar Epithelium

single layer rectangular cells with cilia
mucus from goblet cells moved along by cilia
located in respiratory system, uterus, uterine tubes, paranasal sinuses, celtral canal of spinal cord.

integrins

transmembrane glycoproteins in hemidesmosomes

connexons

fluid filled tunnels connecting two cells (protein tunnels)

Avascular

without blood vessels

goblet cells that secrete mucus
cell with microvilli on the apical surface that are fingerlike cytoplasmic projections

what are the two types of nociliated simple columnar cell that make up this tissue?

Simple epithelium

is a single layer of cells that function in diffusion, osmosis, filtration, secreation, or absorption.

Pseudostratified epithelium

it appears to have multiple layers of cells because the cell nuclei lie at different levels and not all cells reach the apical surface but it is actually a simple epithelium because all its cells rest on the basement membrane

Stratified epithelium

consists of two or more layers of cells that protect underlying tissues in locations where there is considerable wear and tear

squamous cells

thin and allow for the rapid passage ofsubstances through them

Cuboidal cells

are as tall as they are wide and are shaped like cubes or hexagons. They may have microvilli at their apical surface and function in either secretion or absorption

Columnar cells

are much taller than they are wide, like columns, and protect underlying tissues. Their apical surfaces may have cilia or microvilli, and they often are specialized for secretion and absorption.

Transitional cells

they change shape, from squamous to cuboidal and back, as organs such as the urinary bladder stretch to a larger size and then collapse to a smaller size

Nonciliated simple columnar epithelium

what kind of epithelium lines the gastrointestinal tract, ducts of many glands and gallbladder?

Simple Cuboidal Epithelium

What kind of epithelium covers the surface of ovaries, lines anterior surface of capsule of lens of the eye, forms pigmented epithelium at posterior surface of retina of the eye, lines kidney tubules, smaller ducts of many glands, makes up secreting portions of some glands like thyroid gland, and ducts of some glands like the pancreas?

simple squamouse epithelium

What kind of epithelium lines the cardiovascular and lymphatic system (heart, blood vessels, lymphatic vessel linings), known as the endothelium. Also forms the epithelial layer of the serous membranes (peritoneum, pleura, pericardium), known as the mesothelium. Found in air sacs of lungs, inner surface of the tympanic membrane (eardrum)?

Ciliated simple columnar epithelium

What kind of epithelium lines some bronchioles (small tubes) of respiratory tract, uterine (fallopian) tubes, uterus, some paranasal sinuses, central canal of spinal cord and ventricles of the brain?

stratified squamous epithelium

are several cell layers thick, surface cells are flat, has keratinized and nonkeratinized varieties. Functions as protection against abrasion, water loss, ultraviolet radiation, and foreign invasion. Both types form first line of defense against microbes.

skin (epidermis)

Where is Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium found?

mouth, esophagus, tongue, epiglottis, and vagina

Where is Nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium found?

Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium

What tissue is rare in the body?

stratified cuboidal epithelium

multilayered, and the surface cells are cuboidal

in the ducts of sweat glands, esophageal glands, and part of the male urethra

Where is stratified cuboidal epithelium found?

stratified columnar epithelium

multilayered and the surface cells are columnar

esophageal glands, eye, anus, and part of malke urethra

Where is stratified columnar epithelium found?

transitional epithelium

multilayered with surface cells varying in shape from round to flat if stretched. It lines hollow organs that expand.

urinary bladder, ureters, urethra

Where is transitional epithelium found?

Pseudostratified columnar

single cell layer where all cells do not reach the surface. Nuclei are at varying depths.

respiratory system, male urethra and epididymis

Where is pseudostratified columnar epithelium found?

Glandular Epithelium

is derived from epithelial cells that sank below the surface during development.

Exocrine glands and Endocrine glands

Two types of glands are what

Exocrine glands

cells that secrete products (sweat, ear wax, saliva, digestive enzymes). Whatever is secreted is local

Endocrine glands

secrete hormones into the bloodstream. Whatever is secreted goes to the whole body.

unicellular and multicellular

what are the structural classifications of exocrine glands

unicellular glands

single celled glands with goblet cells

multicellular glands

can be branched (compound) or unbranched (simple)
or tubular or acinar (flask like) shape

Merocrine
Apocrine
Holocrine

What are the methods of Glandular Secretion?

Merocrine

the way most glands secrete...cells release their products by exocytosis

Apocrine

upper part of cell possibly pinches off and dies (possibly) there is question about this actually happening.

Holocrine

oil glands secrete this way...whole cells die and rupture to release their products

Connective Tissue

it is made of cells
Matrix secreted by cells
May be liquid, gel or solid
Does not occur on free surface

Connective tissue matrix

made of ground substance (water and large molecules between cells and fibers) and protein fibers

Types of Connective tissue fibers

Collagen fibers, Elastin fibers, and reticular fibers

Collagen Fibers

make up 25% of protein in your body. They are tough, resistant to pull, yet pliable

Elastin Fibers

lungs, blood vessels, ear cartilage. Can stretch up to 150% and return to original shape

Reticular fibers

spleen and lymph nodes, thin, branched fibers that form framework of the organs, formed from protein collagen

Embryonic connective tissue and Mature connective tissue

What are the two classifications of connective tissue?

loose CT, Dense CT, Elastic CT, Cartilage, Bone tissue, Lymph

What are the 7 types of mature connective tissue?

Mesenchyme and Mucous CT

What are the two types of embryonic connective tissue?

Mesenchyme

Gives rist to all other types of connective tissue

Mucous connective tissue

found only in umbical cord aka Horton's Jelly

Loose connective tissue

a mature connective tissue that has loosly woven fibers throughout tissues.

Areolar CT, Adipose CT , and Reticular CT

What are the three types of Loose CT

Embryonic connective tissue

Which connective tissue is present primarily in the embryo and the developing human from fertilization throught the first two months of pregnancy and in the fetus, the developing human from the third month of pregnancy to birth.

mature CT

type of CT present in newborns

Dense CT

which CT contains more fibers which are thicker and more densely packed, but have a lot fewer cells than loose CT

Areolar connective tissue

type of loose CT that contains fibroblasts, plasma cells, macrophages, mast cells and a few white blood cells and all three fiber types are present...reticular, elastic, collagen found in the dermis of skin

Adipose CT

aka fat tissue Deeper layer of skin, organ padding, yellow marrow.
Reduces heat loss, energy storage, provides protection

Reticular CT

produces framework of organs and holds them together
liver, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow

Dense Regular CT, Dense Irregular CT, Elastic CT

3 types of mature dense CT

Dense regular CT

Which type of dense CT has fibers all going in the same direction in parallel bundles with fibroblasts between bundles of collagen fibers. It is very strong and withstands pulling and makes up tendons that attach muscles to bone and ligaments that strap up bones keeping them in place?

Dense irregular CT

Which type of dense CT has collagen fibers that are irregularly arranged or interwoven. Tissue can resist tension from any direction and is very tough. Located in the white of the eyeball and dermis of the skin?

Elastic CT

Which type of dense CT has branching elastic fibers and fibroblasts, can stretch and return to it's original shape, found in the lungs, vocal cords, and ligaments between the vertebrae?

Cartilage

is a gel Network of fibers in rubbery ground substance that can endure more stress than loose or dense connective tissue.

Hyaline Cartilage, Fibrocartilage, Elastic Cartilage

What are the three types of cartilage?

Hyaline Cartilage

Bluish-shiny white rubbery substance. chondrocytes sit in spaces called lacunae (meaning little lakes). repair is very slow, and it reduces friction at the joints. looks like glass

Fibrocartilage

Causes rigidity and stiffness. Is the strongest type of cartilage (intervertibral discs)

Elastic cartilage

elastic fibers that help maintain shape after deformations, Ear, Vocal Cartilages

Bone Tissue (osseous tissue)

Protects, provides for movement. stores minerals, site of blood cell formation

cartilage

which dense connective tissue is relatively innactive tissue that grows slowly, is the presursor to bone for most of the embryonic skeleton and has no blood supply?

Spongy and compact

What are the types of bone?

spongy bone

sponge-like with columns of bone called trabeculae or little beams. it lacks osteons.

trabeculae

columns of bone

Compact bone

solid, dense bone containing osteons (haversian system)

Osteons

lamellae (rings) of mineralized matrix. ring of calcium and phosphate that gives it's hardness. The basic unit of compact bone.

Osteocytes

in spaces (lacunae) in between lamellae

Hyaline cartilage

what cartilage is found at the end of long bones, anterior ens of ribs, nose and part of larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchial tubes, embryonic and fetal skeleton?

Fibrocartilage

what cartilage is found in the pubic symphysis (where hop bones join anteriorly), intervertebral discs, menisci (cartilage pads) of knee, portions of tendons that insert into cartilage?

Elastic cartilage

what cartilage is found in the lid on tip of the larynx (epiglosttis), part of the external ear, auditory tubes?

canaliculi

tiny canals in osseous tissue that connects cell to cell

central canal

in osseous tissue it contains blood vessels and nerves aka the haversian canal

Blood tissue

connective mature tissue with a liquid matrix called blood plasma, where suspended formed elements are suspended which are red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), and cell fragments call platelets. these formed elements allow this tissue to provide clotting, immune functions, and carry O2 and CO2

Lymph

Interstitial fluid being transported in lymphatic vessels that contains less protein than plasma and moves cells and substances (lipids) from one part of the body to another. aka as a filtrate of blood that moves fat about the body.

Membranes

flat sheets of pliable tissue that cover or line a part of the body. The majority of these consist of an epithelial layer and an underlying connective tissue layer and are call epithelial membranes.

mucous membrane
serous membrane
synovial membrane
cutaneous membrane

what are the four types of membranes?

synovial membrane

membrane that lines the joints and contains connective tissue but no epithelium, only special cells that secrete slippery synovial fluid

mucous membrane

also called mucosa...lines the body cavity that opens directly to the outside. located in places such as the vagina, mouth, anus. secretes mucus to keep surface moist. epithelial cells form a barrier to microbes

membranes

epithelial + connective tissue

lamina propria

epithelial layer sitting on a thin layer of connective tissue

serous membranes

line the body cavity that does not open to the outside such as chest or abdominal cavity. pleura, peritoneum, and pericardium are examples. has tow parts: parietal layer and visceral layer, aka the balloon example.

Muscle tissue

have cells that shorten. this tissue produce body movements, maintain posture, and generate heat

skeletal
muscle
smooth

3 types of muscle are what?

skeletal muscle

cells are long cylinders with many of peripheral nuclei. have light and dark bands looks striated. voluntary or consciously controlled

cardiac muscle

cells are branched cylinders with one central nuclei. they are involuntary and striated. they attach to and communicate with each other by intercalated discs.

smooth muscle

spindle shaped cells with a sing central nuclei. found in walls of hollow organs ie. blood vessels, GI tract, bladder. involuntary and nonstriated.

nerve tissue

consists of two different types of cells: neurons and neuroglia (supporting cells)

nerve cell aka neuron

consists of nucleus and long cell processes conduct nerve signal and dendrite, and axon

dendrites

little tree like structures that are apart of the neuron where signals travel toward the cell body.

axon

part of the neuron where signals travel away from the cell body

tissue repair: restoring homeostasis

Worn-out damaged tissue must be replaced
Fibrosis happens
regeneration occurs

fibrosis

repacement with stromal connective tissue cells (scar formation)

regeneration

replacement with original cell types (parenchymal cells)
some cell types can divide (liver and endothelium)
some tissues contain stem cells that can divide (bone marrow, epithelium of gut and skin)
some cell types can not divide and are not replaced(muscle and nervous tissue)

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