3 levels in organizational behavior:
principle functions of management
systematic study of relationships between people and tasks for the purpose of redesigning the work process to increase efficiency
-initiated as an attempt to investigate how characteristics of the work setting affect employee fatigue and performance
-productivity increased regardless of whether illumination was raised or lowered.
factors influencing behavior
-attention from researchers
-manager's leadership approach
-work group norms
-employee is lazy, dislikes work, and does as little as possible
-employee will do what is good for organization when committed
-manager should create an encouraging work environment
-a pattern of relatively enduring ways that people think, feel, and behave.
sources of personality
Big 5 personality types
Type A personality
-sense of urgency, impatient, hostile, elevated cardiovascular problems, driven, and competitive
-good at getting a lot of work done in small amount of time, better alone, better with short-term projects
Type B personality
-easy to work with
McClelland's needs for
-achievement, affiliation, and power
-people with similar personalities are attracted to an organization
-tend to hire people with similar personalities
-people with different personalities leave
-2 or three people interacting with one another to reach specific goals or meet certain needs
-accomplish work collectively and collaboratively to accomplish goals
-composed of people who report to a specific manager
-determined by organizational chart
task group/ force
-brought together to accomplish a specific task and then often disbanded
-if goal is long-term, membership may rotate
self-managed work team
-members have authority to lead and manage themselves
-manager often serves as advisor/ mentor
-members determine how to achieve goals, assign tasks to individual members, coordinate activities,monitor performance, discipline members, and hire/fire members
-uses technology to link members who are physically dispersed
-members collaborate through internet, videoconferencing, teleconferencing
stages of group development
-behaviors or tasks a person is expected to perform because they are holding a position in an organization or group
-informal standards, expectations, and rules of conduct that are collectively shared by organizational or group members
ex=work output, promptness, appropriate dress, socializing
-active mental process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting information in order to give meaning to our environment
what affects perception?
-characteristics of perceiver, target, and situation
-bias that leads people to overemphasize early information
-evaluation of a person's characteristics are affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher/ lower on same characteristic
draw a general impression about a person based on a single characteristic (rusty halo)
similar to me
-people perceive others who are similar to themselves more positively than those who are dissimilar
-tendency to attribute one's own characteristics to other people
harshness, leniency, and average tendency
-some perceivers tend to be overly harsh in their perceptions, others overly lenient, and others view most targets as average
-judging others based on the perception of the group to which they belong
internal locus of control
-attribute your good performance to hard work, good study habits, and interest in the topic
external locus of control
-believes fate is determined by chance or outside forces that are beyond their personal control
-assigning a cause to a behavior
how are attributions made?
with distinctiveness, consensus, and consistency
fundamental attribution error
-tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when judgments about behavior of others
-tendency to attribute the behavior of others to internal causes and attribute own's behavior to external causes
-tendency to take credit for successes and avoid blame for failures
perceptual filters (book):
1. "I Know Better"
2. "it's not my fault"
3. "get rid of the problem, and quickly!"
4. "what i said isn't what i meant"
5. "they are completely irrational"
6. "don't rock the boat"
process of choosing a specific course of action to respond to both opportunities and problems
2 types of decision making
-recurring opportunities and problems
-handled with a routine, repetitive approach
-performance program used
-standardized way of solving problems
-response to new, unique problems or opportunities where information is ambiguous or incomplete; involves customer-made solutions
rational decision-making model:
1. define problem/ opportunity and estab. goals
2. identify criteria
3. allocate weights to criteria
4. develop alternatives
5. evaluate alternatives
6. select best alternative
March and Simon's Administrative Model of Decision-Making
-we don't make the "best" decision but look for and choose "acceptable" responses
-limitations of the mind cause us to construct simplified models where we extract essential features and fail to consider all the complexity of the problem/ opportunity
-overly confident that we are correct
immediate gratification bias
-make choices that provide quick rewards
anchoring and adjustment bias
-make choices based on adjustments from some initial amount (anchor)
-ex= correct employee salary
-focus on information that reaffirms past choices and discounts information that contradicts past judgments
-decide based on information readily available or easy to remember (vivid, extreme, recent)
-tendency to prefer a sure thing over a risky outcome
-predict the likelihood of an event based on how it resembles other events
-believe we can predict the outcome of random events
-tendency to believe falsely, after the outcome is known, that we could have accurately predicted it
escalation of commitment
- stick with a decision and invest additional resources even if there is clear evidence to indicate we are wrong
-don't want to admit we are wrong
advantages of group decision making
-greater availability and diversity of skills, knowledge, and expertise
-better memory for information
-better able to detect errors
-greater decision acceptance
disadvantages of group decision making
-takes more time
-potential for Group Think
-potential for conflict
-diffusion of responsibility
groups that are cohesive strive for agreement at expense of accurately assessing information
-groups tend to make more extreme decisions (more risky vs. more conservative)
diffusion of responsbility
-potential for social loafing (individual exert less effort when in group)
2 types of interests
-things we can touch, see, hear, smell, and taste
-are the underlying reason for a persons' expressed wants, desires, and concerns
-process-based: how something is done
-relationship-based: respect, trust, appreciation
realities of managerial life
3. power gap
-manager are dependent on others to get things done and get ahead
-others are also dependent on them
-people value different things differently
-managers do not have formal authority over many, if not most, of the people on whom they are dependent
3 components of perception are:
3. target of perception
To guard against thinking stereotypically about different types of organizational members, organizations should encourage members to...
focus on characteristics that really affect job performance.
as the ambiguity of the target increases, it becomes...
harder for perceivers to form accurate perceptions
when target os perception are ambiguous, member of an organization should...
not be overly confident about the accuracy of their perceptions
what is the context or environment surrounding the perceiver and the target?
Travis Randall often boasts of his ability to "size up" candidates interviewing for a new job in the first 30 seconds of the interview. He notes that the rest of the interview is spent collecting information to prove to his boss why his initial assessment is correct. This is an example of...
What effect occurs when perceptions of a target are influenced by perceptions of others surrounding the target?
What effect occurs when the perceiver's general impression of a target influences his or her perceptions of the target on more specific dimensions?
The tendency for chief executive officers to choose individuals with background similar to their own to be their successors is an example of the
Leniency, harshness, and average tendency biases are problematic because they...
impact evaluation accuracy and comparability
the most common internal attributions that people make include..
ability, personality, and motivation
the most common external attributions relate to
task difficulty and luck
As a supervisor, John Layman believes one of his employees excels due to "pure, dumb luck". John is making...
an external attribution
What occurs when a manger thinks a subordinate's behavior is due to some innate characteristic rather than to the situation?
Fundamental Attribution Error
Jane is late for work each day about ten minutes. How would Attribution Theory describe this behavior?
it shows consistency and is attributed to internal causes
You are on a team with two individuals who are "difficult". The work has been divided among the three of you and each time your team meets, Janet and Jim disagree about the progress of the team project. Janet is convinced that Jim's lack of progress is because he is inherently lazy and not because of some overwhelming problem with the project itself...
Fundamental Attribution Error
You are shown a videotape of your friend jumping up and down, screaming and gesturing wildly. You are initially concerned about your friend's sanity until you realize the video was shot at a football game. This demonstrates the importance to perception of the:
Your rating in a job interview is high in contrast to the candidate who was interviewed directly before you, who was rated extremely low. Your own high rating might be partially attributed to what?
The Contrast Effect
Investors bragged about their investing expertise during the stock market rally between 1996 and early 2000, then blamed analysts, brokers, and the Federal Reserve when the market imploded in 2002. What sort of bias were these investors most probably guilty of?
The self-serving bias