MAK WSC 2012 Science Guide Terms

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150 terms

Bioethics

Field regarding the ethics of biotechnology

Yeast

Fungus that causes bread to rise

Lancing the Boil

Slice boils open with something sharp to "treat it".

Smallpox

Thousands of pustules (little pimples full of pus) cover the skin, which turns into scars later on, assuming the victim survived. 30% fatality rate.

Immune

Resistant to disease. At the end of the ninth century, people discovered that smallpox survivors, though badly scarred, were immune for the rest of their lives.

Variolation

Exposing someone to a weakened version of a disease so they might be immune.

Cowpox

Milder version of smallpox. In the late 18th century, milkmaids caught this from the cows they milked.

Edward Jenner

Invented the vaccine for smallpox

Vaccine

Substance prepared from killed or weakened pathogens and introduced into a body to produce immunity

Nonstable pathogens

Diseases that constantly mutate to foil antibody detection. They mutate so vaccines wouldn't work against them.

Pasteurization

Heats food long enough to kill all the bacteria in it, but cools it in time to preserve its flavor.

Penicillin

First antibiotic, discovered by Alexander Fleming on accident

Biotechnology

Making useful products out of raw organic materials

Deoxyribonucleic Acid

Genetic material found in all known living organisms

Biological Warfare

The use of bacteria or viruses or toxins to destroy men and animals or food

Green Revolution

New ways of food production to ensure everyone has enough to eat

Bioreactor

A large fermentation tank for growing microorganisms.

Transgene

Foreign gene that is transferred into target cell or tissue

Outcross

Crossing (Breeding) with another plant

Bt-toxin

Bacillus Thuringiensis. Natural pesticide. Forms poisonous crystals that slice up the guts of insects from within, making it impossible for them to digest. They starve to death.

Biofortification

Engineering simple and inexpensive foods to make them more nutritious

Staple food

A food item that is commonly found in an area and eaten on a regular basis

Golden Rice

Genetically modified rice that produces edible beta-carotene, which the body can turn into vitamin A

Plumpy'nut

Biofortified food meant to treat severe malnourishment. Composed of peanut paste, vegetable oil, powdered milk, powdered sugar, and vitamins and minerals. Expensive.

Forensic biotechnology

Biotech used in the analyses of crimes

Variable number tandem repeats (VNTR)

Short pieces of noncoding DNA that repeat many times in a given genome and are very different between individuals who aren't related. Ideal for DNA profiling

Human chimera

Fused fraternal twin: person who originally had a twin in the womb, but absorbed him/her. Has a mosaic of genetic material

Bioterrorism

terrorism using the weapons of biological warfare

Anthrax

Causes skin blisters and life-threatening pneumonia. Survives for long periods as spores

Spores

Cells that lie dormant until the right conditions arise

Incubation Period

The time a diseases lives in its host before attacking

Global Pandemic

Disease that spread all over the world

Biosurveillance

Collecting health data and analyzing it for any deviations from the norm

nucleic acids

molecules that store information for cells, e.g. DNA and RNA

nucleotides

monomer form of nucleic acids

bases (nitrogenous bases)

another name for nucleotides; e.g. adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine

base pairs

nucleotides that are complimentary / pair up with each other (e.g. adenine with thymine, cytosine with guanine)

genes

long segments of DNA that control how a certain trait is expressed in an organism

chromosomes

long chains of DNA coiled up; they contain many genes

proteins

large molecules made of amino acids; have many different functions that are determined by DNA

ribosomes

organelles in cells where proteins are made

transcription

the process in which the sequence on DNA is copied onto mRNA to be carried to the ribosome

translation

the process in which mRNA determines which amino acids the ribosome should assemble (and therefore resulting in a certain protein)

amino acids

building blocks of proteins

exons

genes on DNA that actually code for proteins

introns

long sequences on DNA that don't code for anything

alleles

different variations of a certian gene (e.g. blue eyes vs. brown eyes)

dominant allele

the version of the trait that is expressed whenever it is present; it masks recessive alleles

recessive allele

version of the trait that is only expressed if there are no dominant alleles of the same gene present

homozygous

having 2 of the same allele, e.g. 2 dominant, 2 recessive

heterozygous

having 2 different alleles

homo-

prefix that means "same"

mutation

unplanned changes in genes

mutagenic factors

factors that cause mutation, e.g. radiation,

recombinant DNA technology

combining one strand of DNA with another in order to transfer genes from one organism to another

transformation

the transfer of recombinant DNA from one organism to another

gene gun

device that injects new DNA into the nucleus

enzymes

proteins that catalyze (speed up or activate) chemical reactions

restriction endonucleases

enzymes that select and cut DNA strands

ligase

enzyme that re-connects the 2 DNA strands

recombinant cells

cells that have had recombinant DNA introduced to them

phage

virus that is capable of injecting its own DNA into host cells; they use host cells to reproduce themselves

transduction

the process of a virus transferring DNA form one cell to another

insertional mutation

when DNA is inserted into the wrong place

Type 1 Diabetes

a disease that prevents people form producing enough insulin

insulin

hormone that controls and regulates sugar levels

pancreatic glands

glands where insulin is made

raising ethical red flags

provoking disagreement and anger towards the ethics of a certain possible solution or experiment

patent protection

protection of a certain product from unauthorized copying; the company Genentech got this for their bacteria that produced insulin

safflower

a genetically modified flower that can produce insulin

Hepatitis B

inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus

Yellow Fever

a disease transmitted by mosquitoes: its symptoms inclued high fever and vomiting

Endemic

A disease that is native or common in a certain region

Transgender

person who changed their gender

gender reassignment

gender change

Cochlear implant

A device for converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulating the auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea

Reject

The immune system fights any foreign substances

Immunosuppressant

Limits the body's natural immune system. Organ recipients must take these drugs for the rest of their lives. However, this limits the body's ability to fight actual infections

Ventricular assist device

Helps keep the patient's heart pumping, sometimes through electrical stimulation

Pacemaker

a device that delivers electrical impulses to the heart to regulate the heartbeat

Collagen

The loss of this protein makes elderly faces hollow

Otoplasty

Procedure that pins back ears or shrinks and reshapes them

Neurotransmitters

Carry messages between neurons

Serotonin

Neurotransmitter that is linked with emotion

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

A drug that keeps more serotonin in the brain, used to make depression patients feel better (i.e. Prozac)

Oxytocin

Hormone linked with feelings of affection and loyalty

Placebo

Fake drug with no effects

Narcolepsy

A disorder that induces sleepiness even when the patient feels well-rested

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Disorder- patients can't focus on one task for long

Modafinil (Provigil)

drug that keeps people alert and awake, might even be used to combat depression

Ritalin and Adderall

closely related to cocaine, used to combat ADHD. Increase amounts of norepinephrine and dopamine in the brain.

Norepinephrine and dopamine

Plays a role in cognition, mood, emotions. More of these in the brain gives patients better attention spans, more energy, and even a sense of happiness.

Euphoria

happiness

Stem Cells

Cells that are able to become any type of cell in the body. They also have the ability to renew themselves.

Tissues

Group of cells that combine to perform a function

Undifferentiated

able to become any type of cell in the body

Pluripotent

embryonic cells that can become any tissue in the body

Multipotent

undifferentiated cells within a group, remain inactive until needed to repair or replace damaged cells.

Unipotent

Can only become one type of cell

Fertility

ability to reproduce

Fertility drugs

drugs that increase the production of egg cells

Ova

egg cells

In vitro fertilization

Multiple eggs are extracted and fertilized outside the body. The develop into 6-8 cell embryos before doctors implant them into a woman's uterus.

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)

Screening embryos to assess the risk of certain genetic disorders and the presence of certain traits before deciding which ones to use

Blastema

clump of undifferentiated cells that salamanders produce instead of scabs

Antigens

"markers" on cells that determine whether the immune system should produce antibodies against them

Blood-brain barrier

a barrier in the brain that narcotics such as cocaine must pass in order for the person to become high

Virus-associated proteins (VAPs)

drugs that interfere with viruses by mimic proteins and bind to receptors or mimic the receptors and bind to the protein

Analogues

virus-like genetic material that confuses real viruses

Interferons

Body's natural defense against viruses. They travel from infected cells to other cells and produce proteins that will inhibit the growth of the virus

Myostatin

Protein that binds to special receptors on muscle cells and inhibits muscle growth

Follistatin

Protein that binds to myostatin, stopping it from acting. Promotes muscle growth

Epigenetic changes

physical differences in the expression of genes despite the same genetic code (i.e. environment in a mother's womb, presence of antibodies in breast milk, hazards of everyday living)

Zygote

Ultimate stem cell, capable of forming all the other cells in a fetus

Telomeres

Sit at the end of DNA to protect them from falling apart. Shrinks as the organism ages.

Telomerase

Enzyme that lengthens telomeres and keeps cells from dying. Produced by cancerous cells.

Directed Chimerism

Mix human and animal genes together

Frankenfoods

Genetically engineered foods

Pathogen

something that causes a disease, such as a bacterium or virus

Nutraceuticals

Foods that claims to improve your health

Nanowires

extremely small wires that can be used to build tiny circuits.

Carbon nanotubes

rolled-up sheets of individual carbon atom that are hundreds of times stronger than steel, and six times lighter

white blood cells

blood cells which patrol the body to help stop infections

pyrethrum

a type of insecticide made from powdered chrysanthemum flowers, discovered by Chinese farmers

alginate

gum-like material that are patched over damaged portions of the heart to conduct electrical signals to new grown heart tissues

Lytic viruses

viruses that bursts a cell after duplicating itself several times and spreads.

Lysogenic viruses

viruses that integrates with DNA and turns dominate, later its turns lytic when triggered and spreads

Xenotransplantation

transplanting organs from other species (e.g. pig heart valves in older humans)

Orexin A

a hormone that excites neurons; Most narcoleptic patients don't produce enough of this

Sonogram

determining sex early in a pregnancy

abortion

ending unwanted pregnancies

Prosthetic limb

artificial limb

Magic Bullet

a type of therapy that only kills cancer cells and nothing else

aldehyde dehydrogenase

enzymes that helps breaking down alcohol

aCaMKII

a major signaling molecule for a neural receptor in the brain that erases the memory of something when subject remember it

Muscular dystrophy

a disease that shrinks muscles

Tay-Sachs disease

a disease that causes brains of children to decay, currently is inheritable and has no cure

Human Growth Hormone

growth regulating hormone/steroid

Amphetamines

drugs that speed up body/brain response time

Painkillers

allow athletes to continue performing and not feel pain. (i.e. Oxycontin)

Weeds

unwanted plants that grow among plants that are wanted

glyphosate

herbicide that competes with and inhibits a key enzyme in plants, making them not able to make proteins

Refuge

an area for non-resistant pests

AquaAdvantage Salmon

salmon modified with a gene that makes it grow twice as fast

Nanobots

nanoscale robots

carbon nanotube circuit

nanobots capable of behaving like a synapse in the human brain

receptor proteins

Proteins on brain cells that help controls brain activities

Alzheimer's

a disease of the mind that affects mostly older people, where they steadily lose their memory and their thinking ability

myelin sheaths

a substance that surrounds neurons in people's brains; it degenerates when a person inflict Alzheimer's

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