AP US HIstory: 1901-1918 (Chapters 29, 30, and 31)

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from American Pageant version 12 Progressivism and the Republican Wilsonian Progressivism at Home and Abroad The War to End War

Henry Demarest Lloyd

He wrote the book "Wealth Against Commonwealth" in 1894. It was part of the progressive movement and the book's purpose was to show the wrong in the monopoly of the Standard Oil Company.

Thorstein Veblen

economist, wrote Theory of the Leisure Class, condemned conspicuous consumerism, where status is displayed and conveyed through consumption.

Jacob Riis

A Danish immigrant muckraker, he became a reporter who pointed out the terrible conditions of the tenement houses of the big cities where immigrants lived during the late 1800s. He wrote How The Other Half Lives in 1890.

Lincoln Steffens

United States journalist who exposes in 1906 started an era of muckraking journalism (1866-1936), Writing for McClure's Magazine, he criticized the trend of urbanization with a series of articles under the title Shame of the Cities.

Ida Tarbell

A leading muckraker and magazine editor, she exposed the corruption of the oil industry with her 1904 work A History of Standard Oil.

David G. Phillips

published "The Treason of the Senate" in Cosmopolitan, said that 75 out of the 90 senators represented railroads and trusts rather than the people

Robert LaFollette

Republican Senator from Wisconsin - ran for president under the Progressive Party - proponent of Progressivism and a vocal opponent of railroad trusts, bossism, World War I, and the League of Nations

Hiram Johnson

fought for railroad regulation in California helped to break the dominant grip of the Southern Pacific Railroad on California politics in 1910

Charles Evans Hughes

Started government regulation of public utilities. He was Secretary of State under Harding and later became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. He was the Republican candidate in 1916, and lost to Wilson by less that 1% of the vote.

Upton Sinclair

muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things Sinclair had seen.

initiative

Procedure whereby a certain number of voters may, by petition, propose a law or constitutional amendment and have it submitted to the voters

recall

Procedure whereby voters can remove an elected official from office

referendum

The practice of letting voters accept or reject measures proposed by the legislature

conservation

protecting natural resources and using them wisely

rule of reason

The criterion introduced by the Supreme Court in 1911 to determine whether a particular action was illegal ("unreasonable"/"bad") or legal ("reasonable"/"good") within the terms of the Sherman Act; whether the action promoted or destroyed competition

Muckrakers

This term applies to newspaper reporters and other writers who pointed out the social problems of the era of big business. The term was first given to them by Theodore Roosevelt.

17th Amendment

Direct election of senators

Elkins Act

(1903) gave the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) more power to control railroads--to prevent from giving preferences to certain customers

Hepburn Act

This 1906 law used the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to regulate the maximum charge that railroads to place on shipping goods; essentially, it gave the ICC the power to regulate the economy

Northern Securities case

Roosevelt's legal attack on the Northern Securities Company, which was a railroad holding company owned by James Hill and J.P. Morgan. In the end, the company was "trust-busted" and paved the way for future trust-busts of bad trusts.

Meat Inspection Act

Required strict cleanliness requirements for meat packers and created a program of federal meat inspection. It came about in 1906 as a result of president Roosevelt reading Upton Sinclair's The Jungle. Roosevelt appointed a commission of experts. To investigate the meat packing industry. Then the commission issued a report backing up Sinclair's account of the disgusting conditions in the industry.

Pure Food and Drug Act

Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.

Desert Land Act

1906, Federal government sold arid land cheaply on the condition that the purchaser irrigate the thirsty soil within 3 years.

Forest Reserve Act

1891 authorized president to set aside land to be protected as national parks ;; some 40 million acres of forest rescued

Carey Act

1894; distributed federal land to the states on the condition that it be irrigated and settled; movement towards conservation as opposed to preservation

Newlands Act

1902 act authorizing federal funds from public land sales to pay for irrigation and land development projects, mainly in the dry Western states

dollar diplomacy

Foreign Policy idea by Taft to make countries dependant on the U.S. by heavily investing in their economies; , a policy of joining the business interests of a country with its diplomatic interests abroad

Payne-Aldrich Act

Signed by Taft in March of 1909 in contrast to campaign promises. Was supposed to lower tariff rates but Senator Nelson N. Aldrich of Rhode Island put revisions that raised tariffs. THIS SPLIT THE REPUBLICAN PARTY into progressives (lower tariff) and conservatives (high tariff).

Ballinger-Pinchot affair

a dispute between U.S. Forest Service Chief Gifford Pinchot and U.S. Secretary of the Interior Richard Achilles Ballinger that contributed to the split of the Republican Party before the 1912 Presidential Election and helped to define the U.S. conservation movement in the early 20th century; Taft fired Pinchot, a conservationist, and hired a Ballinger a anti-conservationist after Pinchot condemned Ballinger for opening public lands in Wyoming, Montana, and Alaska to corporate development

Old Guard

controlled the Republican National Committee, viewed Taft as the candidate of the conservatives, and gave him all but 19 of the delegates. Since Roosevelt did not get the delegates he needed he encouraged his progressive. supporters at a rally to follow him and leave the party.

Woodrow Wilson

28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize

Arsene Pujo

was a member of the United States House of Representatives best known for chairing the "Pujo Committee", which sought to expose an anticompetitive conspiracy among some of the nation's most powerful financial interests.

Herbert Croly

Wrote the Promise of American Life (1910) and inspired New Nationalism. He and TR favored the consolidation of trusts and labor unions paralleled by the growth of powerful governmental agencies in Washinton.

Louis Brandeis

A lawyer and jurist, he created the "Brandeis Brief," which succinctly outlines the facts of the case and cites legal precedents, in order to persuade the judge to make a certain ruling.

Victoriano Huerta

He was a Mexican military officer and President of Mexico who was also leader of the violent revolution that took place in 1913. His rise to power caused many Mexicans to cross the border as well as angering the United States who saw him as a dictator.

Venustiano Carranza

(1859-1920) Mexican revolutionist and politician; he led forces against Vitoriano Huerta during the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920).

Pancho Villa

A popular leader during the Mexican Revolution of 1910. An outlaw in his youth, when the revolution started, he formed a cavalry army in the north of Mexico and fought for the rights of the landless in collaboration with Emiliano Zapata; a socialist, wanting to take from the rich and give to the poor

John Pershing

Commander of American Expeditionary Force of over 1 million troops who insisted his soldiers fight as independent units so US would have independent role in shaping the peace, US general who chased Villa over 300 miles into Mexico but didn't capture him

Kaiser Wilhelm III

became new leader of Germany and did not want to share any power with Bismarck so he had dismissed

New Nationalism

Roosevelt's domestic platform during the 1912 election accepting the power of trusts and proposing a more powerful government to regulate them; AS OPPOSED TO WILSON'S NEW FREEDOM

New Freedom

Woodrow Wilson's domestic policy that, promoted antitrust modification, tariff revision, and reform in banking and currency matters; emphasized business competition and small government. It sought to reign in federal authority, release individual energy, and restore competition. It echoed many of the progressive social-justice objectives while pushing for a free economy rather than a planned one; AS OPPOSED TO TR'S NEW NATIONALISM

Underwood Tariff Bill

October 13, 1913 - Lowered tariffs on hundreds of items that could be produced more cheaply in the U.S. than abroad.

16th Amendment

Amendment to the United States Constitution (1913) gave Congress the power to tax income.

Federal Reserve Act

Sparked by the Panic of 1893 and 1907, the 1913 Federal Reserve Act created the Federal Reserve System, which issued paper money controlled by government banks.

Federal Trade Commission Act

A committee formed to investigate industries engaging in interstate commerce. It was created to stop unfair trade practices and to regulate and crush monopolies.

Clayton Act

Corrected the problems of the Sherman Antitrust Act; outlawed certain practices that restricted competition; unions on strike could no longer be considered violating the antitrust acts

Federal Farm Loan Act

1916 act by Wilson that made credit available to farmers at low interest, something that was long-demanded by populists.

Seaman's Act

Sponsored by Bob LaFollette, this act of 1915 was intended to promote the living and working conditions of seamen serving in the United States Merchant Marine. It applied to vessels in excess of 100 gross tons, excluding river craft.

Workman's Compensation Act

established an insurance program for federal workers

Adamson Act

(WW) , 1916; established an 8-hour work day for all employees on trains in interstate commerce, with extra pay for overtime, especially implemented to avert national strike

Jones Act

Act that replaced the Foraker Act. It gave Puerto Ricans full citizenship, as well as a government that was similar to a state government.

Central Powers

World War I alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire

Allies

Group of nations, including the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union, who opposed the Axis powers

Arabic

the Semitic language of the Arabs

Sussex

Passenger-liner sunk in March 1916 by Germany. This led Wilson to break diplomatic relations with Germany if they did not comply with his commands.

George Creel

head of the Committee on Public Information 1917 which was allegedly formed to combat wartime rumors by providing authoritative info. It served as propaganda agency proclaiming the govn'ts version of reality and discrediting those who questioned that version.

Bernard Baruch

He headed the War Industries Board which placed the control of industries into the hands of the federal government. It was a prime example of War Socialism.

Herbert Hoover

U.S. president (31) during stock market crash, who rejected the Progressive emphasis on activist government to pursue a program of minimal business regulation, low taxes, and high tariffs; encouraged businesses to regulate themselves, his belief in "rugged individualism" kept him from giving people direct relief during the Great Depression.

Marshal Foch

Commander of the Allied forces who ordered attacks along a line from Verdun to the North Sea. He made the crucial move of the forces to the area between the Meuse River and the Argonne Forest.

Henry Cabot Lodge

Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he was a leader in the fight against participation in the League of Nations

Warren Harding

29th president; Pres.1921 laissez-faire, little regard for gov't or presidency. "return to normalcy" after Wilson + his progressive ideals. Office became corrupt: allowed drinking in prohibition, had an affair, surrounded himself w/ cronies (used office for private gain). Ex) Sec. of Interior leased gov't land w/ oil for $500,000 and took money himself. Died after 3 years in office, VP: Coolidge took over

James Cox

was a Governor of Ohio, U.S. Representative from Ohio and Democratic candidate for President of the United States in the election of 1920.

self-determination

the ability of a government to determine their own course of their own free will

collective security

a system in which a group of nations acts as one to preserve the peace of all.

conscription

compulsory military service

"normalcy"

the name for an attempt and desire to return to a pre-WWI lifestyle

Zimmerman note

Written by Arthur Zimmerman, a german foreign secretary. In this note he had secretly proposed a German- Mexican alliance. He tempted Mexico with the ideas of recovering Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico. The note was intercepted on March 1, 1917 by the U.S. government. This was a major factor that led us into WWI.

Fourteen Points

the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations

League of Nations

International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s.

Committee on Public Information

It was headed by George Creel. The purpose of this committee was to mobilize people's minds for war, both in America and abroad. Tried to get the entire U.S. public to support U.S. involvement in WWI. Creel's organization, employed some 150,000 workers at home and oversees. He proved that words were indeed weapons.

Espionage and Sedition Acts

two laws, enacted in 1917 and 1918, that imposed harsh penalties on anyone interfering with or speaking against U.S. participation in WWI

Industrial Workers of the World

Founded in 1905, this radical union, also known as the Wobblies aimed to unite the American working class into one union to promote labor's interests. It worked to organize unskilled and foreign-born laborers, advocated social revolution, and led several major strikes. Stressed solidarity.

War Industries Board

This government agency oversaw the production of all American factories. It determined priorities, allocated raw materials, and fixed prices; it told manufacturers what they could and could not produce.

19th Amendment

Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.

Food Administration

This government agency was headed by Herbert Hoover and was established to increase the production of food and ration food for the military.

18th Amendment

Ban on sale, manufacture, and transport of alcoholic beverages. Repealed by 21st amendment

Bolsheviks

Led by Vladimir Lenin it was the Russian communist party that took over the Russian goverment during WWI

doughboys

a nickname for the inexperienced but fresh American soldiers during WWI

Big Four

Woodrow Wilson (US president), Georges Clemenceau (french premier), David Lloyd George (british prime minister), Vittorio Orlando (italian prime minister)

irreconcilables

These were Republicans who wanted no part with the League of Nations. They were a burden to the vote on the League of Nations and had a part in its failure to pass.

Treaty of Versailles

Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. 2) Germany had to rapair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manefacture any weapons.

Lusitania

Sunk in 1915 by a German submarine. 139 American killed. Forced Germany to stop submarine warfare.

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