BIO 1108: Flowering Plant Vegetative Structures

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Augusta State University Dr. Cromer Spring 2012

epidermis

the outermost cell layer of the primary plant body

root hairs

tiny hair-like extensions that increase the surface area of the root allowing it to absorbs more water and nutrients

root cap

thimble-shaped mass of cells covering and protecting the growing tip of a root

apical meristem

group of undifferentiated cells that divide to produce increased length of stems and roots

cortex

spongy layer of ground tissue just inside the epidermis of a root

vascular cylinder

central region of a root that includes the vascular tissue-xylem and phloem

node

the area of a plant's stem from which the leaves grow

internode

a segment of a stem between two nodes

apical bud

A bud at the tip of a plant stem; also called a terminal bud

lateral (axillary) bud

meristematic area on the side of a stem that gives rise to side branches

cuticle

Waxy, protective layer that covers the stems, leaves, and flowers of many plants. Helps prevent water loss

cortex

the tissue forming the outer layer of a structure in a plant

pith

soft spongelike central cylinder of the stems of most flowering plants

vascular bundle

a unit strand of the vascular system in stems and leaves of higher plants consisting essentially of xylem and phloem

blade

especially a leaf of grass or the broad portion of a leaf as distinct from the petiole

petiole

the slender stem that supports the blade of a leaf

stomata

the small openings on the undersides of most leaves through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move

guard cells

The two cells that flank the stomatal pore and regulate the opening and closing of the pore

mesophyll

The ground tissue of a leaf, sandwiched between the upper and lower epidermis and specialized for photosynthesis

vein

in plants, a cluster of vascular tissue in leaves

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