The bodys first line of defense in preventing pathegons from entering the body
a response of body tissues to injury or irritation, characterized by redness, swelling, pain, and warmth
Thick yellowish-white fluid that is formed in infected wounds. It is composed of leukocytes, bacteria and broken cells
a rise in the temperature of the body
protein that destroys antigens that enter the body
the use of chemical agents to treat disease
chemical produced by living organisms that kills the growth of other organisms.
any affliction not caused by a pathogen.
when cancerous cells separate from the tumor and enter the bloodstream (circulatory) or lymphatic system and travel to other parts of the body.
the removal of living tissue from the body for diagnostic examination
specialist in the study of disease
the study of aging and the elderly
the state of an individual who shows no brain waves for 24-48 hours
body's 3 lines of defense against disease
1. structural defenses: skin, mucous membrane, tear glands - prevents pathogens from entering the body. 2. Nonspecific defenses: inflammation, pus, fever work to fight against the pathogen 3. Specific defenses: Immune System - antibodies fight the pathogens and if those pathogens try to enter body again, antibodies immediately recognize it and fight against it.
describe 2 structural defenses against disease
1. skin - forms a barrier against invading organisms. Skin secretes fatty acids and salts that inhibit microorganisms. 2. mucous membrane - line respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts. They are closely packed cells that form tight wall like an "inside skin"
Describe nonspecific defenses
1. inflammation - increased flow of blood where White blood cells called phagocytes fight against the toxins. 2. Dead white blood cells and dead bacteria after the conflict are released as Pus. 3. Fever - elevated temperatures make environment less favorable for toxins so they don't grow.
What can doctors do to help control pathogen that is in the body?
Use chemotherapy to fight the toxins. The most common type of chemotherapy to treat bacterial diseases today is antibiotics.
Difference b/ bactericidal and bacteriostatic chemicals
Bactericidal means killing bacteria and bacteriostatic means inhibiting growth of bacteria.
4 ways that antibiotics inhibit bacterial growth
1. Disrupt the cell wall of bacteria by Inhibiting the synthesis of peptidoglycans in the cell walls. 2. Interfere w/ protein synthesis. w/o proper proteins, bacteria can't grow. 3. Inhibit RNA synthesis. 4. Alters plasma membrane causing leakage.
3 major types of disorders - example of each.
1. Inherited disorders - hemophilia, PKU, sickle cell anemia 2. Injuries - bruises, loss of leg, concussion 3. organic disorders - strokes, ulcers, blood clots,
Difference b/ normal body cells and cancer cells.
Cancer cells are cells of the body that have changed their normal genetic expression. Nuclei in cancer cells is larger and has more DNA. Cell growth and reproduction is faster in cancer cells. Cancer cells can have bizarre appearance and abnormal # of chromosomes.
3 possible causes of cancer
1. Carcinogenic chemicals - tabacco
2. radiation - uv rays in sunlight, xrays
3. viruses - HPV virus causes cervical cancer.
3 things to reduce risk of cancer
1. don't smoke or use tobacco products 2. avoid exposure to uv rays 3. eat healthy - fiber and veggies.
Criteria for determing when physical death occurs
1. Absence of heartbeat
2. Absence of breathing
3. Absence of of brain wave activity
2 example of How God use diseases and disorders to accomplish his will. (use scripture)
Diseases and disorders can teach people to depend on God in their struggles. Romans 5:3 says suffering produces preservance and character. Suffering helps us to learn to be compassionate to others. 2 Cor. 1:4 says God comforts us in our troubles so that we can comfort others.