Chapter 2

Created by michaelmunoz2 

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*Culture

the language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and even material objects tht are passed from one generation to the next

*Material culture

the material objects that distinguish a group of people, such as their art, buildings, weapons, utensils, machines, hairstyles, clothing, and jewelry

*Nonmaterial culture

(also called symbolic culture) a group's ways of thinking (including its beliefs, values, and other assumptions about the world) and doing (its common patterns of behavior, including language and other forms of interaction)

*Culture shock

the disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with a fundamentally different culture and can no longer depend on their taken for granted assumption about life

*Ethnocentrism

the use of one's own culture as a yardstick for judging the ways of other individuals or societies, generally leading to a negative evaluation of their values, norms, and behaviors

*Cultural reletivism

not judging a culture but trying to understand it on its own terms

*Symbolic culture

another term for nonmaterial culture

Symbol

something to which people attach meanings and then use to communicate with others

*Gestures

the ways in which people use their bodies to communicate with another

*Language

a system of symbols that can be combined in an infinite number of ways and can represent not only objects but also abstract thought.

*Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

language creates ways of thinking and perceiving

*Values

the standards by which people define what is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly

*Norms

Expectations, or rules of behavior, that reflect and enforce values

*Sanctions

expressions of approval or disapproval given to people for upholding or violating norms

Importance of Language

The principle means by culture is transmitted from generation to generation.

*Dominant Culture

The group whose values, norms, traditions, and outlooks are imposed on the society as a whole

*Folkways

norms that are not strictly enforced

*Mores

norms that are strictly enforced because they are thought essential to core values or the well-being of the group

*Taboo

a norm so strong that it often brings revulsion if violated

*Subculture

the values and related behaviors of a group that distinguish its members from the larger culture; a world within a world

*Counterculture

a group whose values, beliefs and related behaviors place its members in opposition to the broader culture

*Ideal culture

the ideal values and norms of people; the goals held out for them

*Real culture

the norms and values that people actually follow

*Cultural universal

a value, norm, or other cultural trait that is found in every group

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