What is the action of Sulfonamides?
Inhibit bacterial synthesis of folic acid
Are sulfonamides bacteriostatic or bacterialicidal?
What do sulfamonamides fight against?
Gram negative bacteria
What are the uses for Sulfonamides?
What are the routes for Sulfonamides?
Oral, IV, topical, ophthlamic (eye ointment)
When would an eye ointment be best used?
On a baby
What is an example of short-acting Sulfonamides?
What is an example of intermediate-acting sulfonamides?
What are the side effects of Sulfonbamides?
-GI distress, stomatitis, photosensitivity
-Crystalluria, renal failure
-Blood dyscrasias, Stevens-Johnson syndrome
What are the nursing interventions for Sulfonamides?
-Increase fluid intake
-Check BUN, creatine, CBC
-Monitor for rash
-Avoid during third trimester
What does Trimethoprim do?
Interferes with bacterial folic acid synthesis
Trimethoprim is effective against what?
Trimethorpim is combined with Sulfamethoxazole to have what kind of effect?
What are two examples of TMP/SMZ drugs?
Bactrum and Septra
What do TMP/SMZ drugs treat?
What are the routes for TMP/SMZ drugs?
Oral and IV
What are the drug interactions for TMP/SMZ?
-Warfarin - Cumadin
--Increase in anticoagulation (increases it) - increases inability to clot (bleed for)
--Monitor I&R, PR time
-Oral hypoglycemic drugs - Metformin (makes blood glucose levels decrease)
--Monitor blood sugar
--Sulfa drugs can make blood glucose levels drop even more
What are the side effects for TMP/SMZ drugs?
-Headache and dizziness
What are the adverse reactions to TMP/SMZ?
-Mess with blood disorder (dyscarsias)
Who are the worst people to put on sulfa drugs?
People on dialysis
What are some nursing interventions for Sulfonamides?
-Give 1 hour before or 2 hours after
-Give with a full glass of water
-Increase fluid intake
-Monitor for sore throat, bleeding, bruising, CBC
-Check for superinfection
-Advise not to take anatacids
-Avoid direct sunlight
What do you do during the assessment phase?
Gathering data (e.g., checking for allergies, medical history, what medications they are on)
What do you do during the planning phase?
-Plan of action
What do you do during the Implementation phase?
DOING things (e.g., administering drug, documenting, observing for signs of infection)
What do you do during the evaulation phase?
-Seeing if they have reached the planning goal
Sulfa drugs may be used as alternative drugs for people who are allergic to what?
Sulfa drugs are not effective against what?
Fungal and viral infections
Sulfa drugs are poorly soluble in the urine which causes what?
After liquid tetracycline is ordered for a 2-year-old child, the nurse provides which most important instruction to the LPN who is administering the medications?
Withhold the drug until I telephone the prescriber
When planning care for a client receiving a sulfonamide antibiotic, what is a primary intervention?
Force fluids to at least 3000 ml/day
A client with type II DM is starts on (TMP-SMZ). Which nursing interventions is a priority for this client?
Assess blood sugar
Discharge teaching by the nurse for a client receiving tetracycline should include what instruction?
Use sunscreen and protective clothing when outdoors
A client is prescribed carisoprodol (Soma) for relief of muscle spasms. The nurse instructs the client to avoid which drink while taking carisoprodol?
The nurse is caring for a client diagnosed with myasthenia gravis who is experiencing a myasthenic crisis. What is the primary nursing intervention?
Maintain the client's airway
The nurse is caring for a client who is taking a barbiturate. Which assessment requires immediate action by the nurse?
Urinary output of 10 ml/hr