The 2008 presidential election was important because it
demonstrated that women and African Americans can be serious contenders for the presidency.
_____ require that the government have a compelling state interest for treating people differently.
In an attempt to make the black codes unconstitutional, the _________ amendment was passed, which stated, in part, that no state could deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of the law, or deny any person equal protection of the law.
In Brown v. Board of Education, the Supreme Court ruled unanimously that
segregated schools were inherently unequal because the very fact of segregation made blacks feel unequal.
The tax levied as a requirement for voting was the _____ tax.
During World War II, Japanese Americans
were placed in detainment camps for national security purposes.
Jim Crow laws were significant because they
restricted rights of African Americans even after the passage of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments.
The impact of the Plessy v. Ferguson decision was to
authorize the segregation of whites and blacks
The civil rights movement of the 1950s‐1960s was most successful in eliminating ______, but was far less successful in eliminating ______.
de jure discrimination; de facto discrimination
Which of the following has the Supreme Court ruled regarding gay and lesbian rights?
Sodomy laws are unconstitutional
The legal methods used to deny African Americans the right to vote, such as literacy tests and poll taxes, were overcome by
passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Twenty‐fourth Amendment to the Constitution.
_____ discrimination arises from or is supported by law.
The 1848 Convention in Seneca Falls, New York, signified the
birth of the women's rights movement
Which of the following is NOT constitutional?
Fulfilling quotas of minorities in school admissions
Social and economic statistics tend to show that
inequality still pervades the American system.
One effect of casino gambling on reservations is that
Native Americans have achieved new financial prosperity by parlaying their status as semi‐sovereign nations.
The major impact of the Brown v. Board of Education decision was that it
served as a catalyst for the civil rights movement
The Americans with Disabilities Act was controversial because
many of the required changes in physical accommodations are extremely expensive to install.
The Supreme Court ruled in 2003 that
racial profiling is unconstitutional
What is the definition of affirmative action?
A policy of creating opportunities for members of certain groups as a substantive remedy for past discrimination
During the Reconstruction period, southerners sought to
maintain power and the status quo
What is the definition of strict scrutiny?
A heightened standard of review used by the Supreme Court to assess the constitutionality of laws that treat individuals differently based on race
The ______ Amendment gives women the right to vote.
The concepts of strict scrutiny and suspect classification are used by the Supreme Court to answer what question?
When can the law treat people differently?
While women have achieved a level of formal equality,
discrimination remains in the workplace and women are underrepresented in many areas of employment.