October 31, 1517. was nailed on the door of the church. It protested selling of undulgences. led to reform of church
Act of Supremecy
this law made the king the head of the church
A Protestant sect that believed only adults could make a free choice regarding religion; they also advocated pacifism, separation of church and state, and democratic church organization.
An instrument invented by Muslims that is used to determine direction by figuring out the position of the stars.
Autor of The Book of The Courtier.
Portuguese explorer who in 1488 led the first expedition to sail around the southern tip of Africa from the Atlantic and sight the Indian Ocean. (p. 428)
Italian poet (born in France) (1313-1375)
small light ships that made travel much easier
Cathrine of Aragon
the first wife of King Henry VII. Has a daughter, Mary. aka Boody Mary. She is suppose to marry his older brother who dies before the wedding so she ends up marrying henry
Italian explorer who sailed across the Atlantic Ocean in 1492 and claimed the land he disovered for Spain. he is credited for the finding of America but he truthfully was not the first person to find it
Cosimo de Medici
Italian financier and statesman and friend of the papal court (1389-1464)
Council of Trent
an ecumenical council of the Roman Catholic Church convened in Trento in three sessions between 1545 and 1563 in response to the Reformation
Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe. wrote The Praise of Folly
Florentine sculptor famous for his lifelike sculptures (1386-1466)
edict of worms
When Charles V exiled or outlawed Luther from The Holy Roman Empire or any of it's other lands.
English king that left the catholic church and started the Church of England. He had 6 wives
Index of Forbidden Books
A list of books that Catholics were forbidden to read. By Pope Paul III
The Society of Jesus is a religious order of men within the Roman Catholic Church formed under the inspiration of Ignatius of Loyola
developed Printing Press and printed the Bible...books became cheaper, easier to produce and more available..
Leonardo Da Vinci
Italian painter and sculptor and engineer and scientist and architect
Line of Demarcation
imaginarry north to south line runnig down the middle of the atlantic and granted spain the west of the line and portugal the east
Lorenzo de Medici
Italian statesman and scholar who supported many artists and humanists including Michelangelo and Leonardo and Botticelli (1449-1492)
Marguerite of Navarre
sister of King Francis I, passed Protestant ideals to descendants and protected protestant priest
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
Florentine sculptor and painter and architect
writer, historian, statesman, wrote The Prince
People who supported artists and artwork in the renissance
a series of uprisings by German peasants against their landowners. over 130,000 peasants were killed
Flemish, painted alot of peasants
pope leo x
Religious leader from the powerful Mecdici family
Pope Paul III
Italian pope who excommunicated Henry VIII, instituted the order of the Jesuits, appointed many reform-minded cardinals, and initiated the Council of Trent.
Elders of a community church, under John Knox's system.
Prince Henry the Navigator
Portuguese prince who thought that explorers could find a shortcut around Africa to Asia
result of King Henry VIII Broke w/ Roman Catholic church in 1530's; Catholics v.s. Protestants; Protestant eventually became dominate religion in England after Queen Elizabeth; Battles with Irish
Italian painter whose many paintings exemplify the ideals of the High Renaissance (1483-1520)
The period of rebirth of learning in Europe between about 1300 and 1600
worldly; not pertaining to church matters or religion; temporal
Sir Thomas Moore
Humainst. Beheaded by Henry VIII because he refused the Act of Supremecy. He wrote Utopia
one of the few woman painters of the renissance
by Baldassare Castiglione. They taught how to become a "Renaissance man"; A young man, said Castiglione, should be charming, witty, and well educated in the classics. He should dance, sing, play music, and write poetry. Upper-class women also should know the classics and be charming.
The Praise of Folly
erasmus' most famous book; ridiculed ignorance, superstition, and vice among christians
book explaining how to gain power and maintain it.
the belief in government by divine guidance
Treaty of Tordesillas
agreement between spain and portugal to explore different lands
center of learning in Renissance Italy
a book by Sir Thomas More (1516) describing the perfect society on an imaginary island
Vasco de Gama
sailed from portugal and went to india and found a water route to asia
Echanged sonnets with michaelangelo and helped Castiglione write the Courtier
English author who wrote sonnets, poetry, and 37 plays with beautiful language
An official population count
The divine comedy
A book that helped King William keep track of all of the people and property in England
Created the english parliament
Elanor of Aquitaine
a powerful french duchess that married Henry II, was married too 2 kings and fathered two kings. Owned alot of land
Philip establishes this. It was like the Parliment and consisted of nobility, clergy, and townspeople to help with governing.
a style of architecture developed in northern France that spread throughout Europe between the 12th and 16th centuries
A medieval organization of crafts workers or trades people.
made legal reforms including setting up a jury system, married elanor of aquitaine
chosen by nobles to be king of France- established the Capetian Dynasty, centered empire around France
A Roman Catholic tribunal for investigating and prosecuting charges of heresy - especially the one active in Spain during the 1400s.
trial system that took shape under Henry II
Aragon prince who married Isabella of Castile to rule a united Spain; conquered the moors
King John I
King of England from AD 1199 to 1216; in 1215, he signed the Magna Carta, giving more right to British nobles.
Loved by people of France, ended serfdom, more royal justice, persecuted jews and hyraces.
king of France who led the unsuccessful Second Crusade and fought frequent wars with Henry II of England (1120-1180)
This document, signed by King John of Endland in 1215, is the cornerstone of English justice and law. It declared that the king and government were bound by the same laws as other citizens of England. It contained the antecedents of the ideas of due process and the right to a fair and speedy trial that are included in the protection offered by the U.S. Bill of Rights
A councilof lords, clergy, and commons people that advised the English king on government matters
Spanish name for muslims
(1180-1223) King of France went on Third Crusade
taxed clergy to pay for a war; after much conflict with the Pope, he called the Estates General to request support
Pope Urban II
head of the Roman Catholic chirch who started the Crusades
Castilian princess who rules Spain with her husband, Ferdinand of Aragon
The effort by Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of Spain, lasting from the 1100s until 1492.
The king of England who led the third Crusade. Also known as "Lion Heart"
(1137-1193) Powerful Muslim ruler during Third Crusade, defeated Christians at Hattin took Jerusalem
scholars who gathered and taught at medieval European universities.
Selling of church officies, attempted to be reformed by chruch in 10th and 11th centuries
The archbishop of Cantebury- He was murdered by knights because they thought they were doing it as orders of the king.
Three Field System
a system of farming developed in medieval Europe, in which farm land was divided into three fields of equal size and each of these was successively planted with a winter crop, planted with a spring crop, and left unplanted.
believed that god ruled over an orderly universe governed by logic, brought together christian faith and greek philosophy
common language of everyday people
"The Conquer" duke of Normandy who led the Norman invasion of England and became the first Norman to be King of England
Age of Warring States
(1467 - 1568) durring this time period, there was no shogunate (a lot of fighting going on); castles built on hills in different provinces, Europeans arrive in Japan bringing fire arms and Christianity; Christianity and foreign trade flourish
a minority population in Japan; first settlers in Japan
chain of islands (japan is approx. 4500 islands)
(1338 - 1573) during this shogunate, many shoguns were fighting for power; the laws were unclear fuedal warfare; armies of samurai protected the country; they attack China (Ming Dynasty) and cause the Chinese to move inland
minorty population in Japan; these people are the lowest on the social ladder; had laboring jobs
oath of strict rules taken by a samurai; ha dto be brave, faithful, polite, simple, not show any pain, etc.
powerful warlord that controlled big estates; the best person from this class would become the shogun
didn't have as much power as the shoguns; but were only kept around because the were decendents of god
like untouchables; lowest of the low on social class
a lord is granted land in exchange for military protection and services
this clan really wanted to rule but couldnt because they didn't have "god blood" so they married their child to the family that was ruling; when they go into power, the court becomes currupt, they dont care, they don't pay tazes to keep things going; feudalism develops
classy prostitute; highly educated and trained; spoke many languages, played instruments; went to tea houses and served buisness men
a poem that usually is written about nature; has 5, 7, and 5 lines
(794 - 1100) move the capital to Heian; 300 years of developing a new culture; growth of large estates; arts and literature of china flourished; elaborate court life; personal diaries (pillow book and the take of genji); moved away from chinese culture
Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyoshu
the 4 main islands in Japan
the Japanese art of the formal flower arrangement, based on harmony and brings peace to Japan
first emperor of Japan
Japanese theater; kind of like a musical
what the Japanese named the typhoons-the Mongols after the Japanese defeated them
these are the good spirits of nature
(1192 - 1330) started by Minamoto Yoritomo; this was the first shogunate of Japan; the samurai class was wealthy; mongols come to take over japan, but were defeated twice (1. kamakaze, 2. japanese built a big wall) from all the fighting, shogunate lost money and fell apart
a mix of Chinese characters with the original Japanese writing
"dictator" had this title (and not shogun) because the person wasnt originally born into the samurai class
impossible questions that take very deep meditation (necessary to reach satori)
this group of peope brought Buddhism to Japan; weren't granted citizenship till 1985
she wrote the Tale of Genji
first shogun of Japan; he started the tradition of shogunates; he passed all his land to his oldest son, and the others got nothing; his other sons turned into buddhist monks and fought each other for land
highest mountain in Japan; used to be a snowcap volcano
(704 - 794AD) when the capital was at Nara; a group of reformers try to reform the government after shotuku died; they didn't like the Chinese's civil service exam so they make the Taiho Code
Diamyo when he was 15; excellent general - unifies a large part of Japan; allows foreigners to enter Japan to break the power of the monks (who fight); he was murdered by one of his generals so he never got the chance to make a shogunate
Buddhist temples with many-storied towers; this was adapted from the Chinese
goes to China in 600AD; sent out 3 expiditions (sent scholars, artists, etc to absorb Chinese culture); copies everything from the Chinese
samurai that lost his Daimyo; they carry great shame
self understanding; in order to reach this, a person had to answer koans
she wrote the pillow book
if a samurai broke bushido, samurais had to commit suicide called this
one of the two religions; "the way of the gods" people should live amungst nature
military rank for the commander of an army
a military family (kind of like a dynasty); a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator
a code developed during the Nara Period; it gave the emperors more power; government positions were bases on birth
Tale of Genji
story of Prince Genji and his lovers, written by Lady Murasaki Shikibu; believed to be the world's first full novel
The Pillow Book
book written by Sei Shonagon; talked about court life
(1536 - 1598) adopted by samurai family; Nobonaga's top general - he gets the title of Kanpuku when Nobonaga dies; *he unifies all of Japan; centralizes tax system; disarms all non samurai to stop rebellion and fighting; expells europeans
appointed shogun by emperor; laid down a 4 class system, people were restricted to only marry to members in the same class (warriors, farmers, artisans, merchants); closed off Japan for 250 years (except to Dutch and Chinese); later persecuted christians and forbade christianity (he wanted their own culture/religion); centralized government so all the power was in the hands of the shogun; he made it so that it was illegal to fight even if you were a samurai; domestic trade fourished because it was safer
shogunate started by Tokugawa Leyasu; 4 class system, warriors, farmers, artisans, merchants; Japan's ports were closed off; wanted to create their own culture; illegal to fight; merchants became rich because domestic trade flourished (because fighting was illegal); had new forms of art - kabuki and geishas
a clan; each clan had their own cheif
(500 - 700) "Great Kings" era; these people claimed to be decendents of Jimmo Tenno to obtain power; Buddhism enters Japan through Koreans; confucianism; language was kanji; by 600 AD, Prince Shotuku decides he wants to go to china to learn about their culture to add to China's culture (he sent 3 expiditions)
(250 BC - 220AD) had sculptures of warriors and horses; tools were made out of iron; was believed to be a warring period
one of two religions; starts in 1200 BC; ultimate goal was satori; believed that strict religious, physical, and mental disapline was necessary in order to reach nirvana
akum's capital city, becomes chief trading port because it is near sea and camel routes.
division of people by age to divide up work
first people to have written language call ge'ez, people called aksumites
the doctrine that all natural objects and the universe itself have souls, spirits of nature
1493-1527, great ruler, brings islam back, established army, increases songhai, rebuilds timbuktu, collects taxes, trade was safer
thrown out of tribe
the movement of the bantu peoples southward throghout africa, spreading their language and culture, from around 500 b.c. to around A.D 1000
related by language, had a great migration, culturally related, shared ideas with anyone.
In forest of niger delta, rulers called oba (also descents of Ife), major trade center, had sculptures, ivory furs, died out because of slave trade.
payment groom makes to father
Head of tribe
people working together for the good of the tribe
runs through heart of africa
jesus IS god, believe he was black, worshiped with a lot of festivities and color.
council of elders
decision makers of the tribe
shells that could be used as a form of currency
when land turns to desert, causes= drought, sand storms, over farming.
Witch doctor, makes predictions
oldest west african city near niger river
325-360, aksum reached its golden age under his rule, coverts to coptic christianity, defeats nova (tribe), conquers yemen, wrote conquest on stelle, made building with stones w/out grout, made new coins, had terrace farming, damns, water tanks.
something to hold of have to hold off evil spirits.
capital of songhai
the language of the aksumites
900-1200 A.D., started by sonike tribe, had gold mines, located on important trade routes, kings got wealthy from taxes from people traveling through, only kings could own gold nuggets, they also were the judges and military leaders, lacked salt to preserve food so they traded salt for gold.
great rift valley
huge crack in the earth
Started by shana tribe, very big and great kingdom, empire built on gold trade, farmed had cattle, 1450 disappeared.
located on niger river, organized into city states, never untied, were farmers, traded a lot of cotton, crops, cold, salt.
from Morocco, visited muslim countries
first people on earth, eventually grows into kingdom (like oyo)
initiation rites/ rites of passage
series of tests throughout life. (boys circumcised in public w/no tears or pain, etc)
1871 found great Zimbabwe's ruins
most southern, very wealthy, acted as middleman and taxed people, controlled trade, supposedly had ivory beds, silk robes.
all nutrients taken out of soil
kingdom led by sundiata,
1307-1332 devoted muslim, took famous hajj and was gone for two years, took lots of people, brings lots of gold, 80 camels, gives away gold as alms (value of gold drops), built mosques, hotels. also builds timbuktu, increases size of mali, divides empire into provinces, grows a lot of crops, population increases.
anthropologist who found oldest body
a single standing mountain
wealthy city state
from Great Zimbabe, starts his own empire
in southern africa, driest desert on earth.
lots of farming near this river
worlds longest river, blue and white nile meet, flows south to north, empties into Mediterranean sea, floods same time every year, carried silt.
earliest known west african culture, farmers, first to smelt iron weapons and tools, traded, believe to have settled in djenne-djenno located near niger river, also located on important trade routes.
underground water well in desert
late 1600's, traded, craftsmen, lots of food.
having multiple wives, each must be treated equally.
traded slaves, one of the only woman rulers
largest desert in world, bigger than the U.S., hot at day, very cold at night.
shoreline of sahara desert
grassy plains, animals, farming
state that controlled gold mines
established by sunni ali ber
tribe that established the great empire of ghana
chinese scholar; she wrote lessons for women "7 feminine virtues"; women were inferior; they couldn't laugh, must be humble, work all day, serve others first, take insults
everything was made out of bronze during this time period
(221 - 206 BC) a legalist dynasty created by Qin Shi; all the city states were combined; the Great Wall was built during this dynasty, but not completed
Civil Service Exam
a 3 day test to work for the government; people train for years because it was very hard
(551 - 449 BC) a Chinese philosopher of the Zhou Dynasty born into gentry class; devoted his life to teaching; developed a code of behavior based on old traditions, good behavior, and truth.
Doctrine of Human Nature
*knowledge is power; discusses how man is good and he can correct his mistakes and anyone can aquire knowledge with effort
Doctrine of Human Relationships
5 basic relationships in life and all people have them sometime in their life time; both sides compliment the other
Doctrine of Moderation
to do things in moderation; too much is bad as not enough (the golden rule)
Doctrine of Rectification
role play to acheive harmony; know how youre supposed to act around certain people (ex. mother, teacher, employer, friend, wife)
Doctrine of Religion
confucious doesn't believe in religion; don't worry about the future - know your self first (no religion)
new dynasty is given mandante --> they improve the ecomomy, lower taxes, build roads, increase food supply, help the military, etc --> Aging dynasty begins to slack off (raise taxes, etc.), --> gods sends sign (natural disasters), --> people rebel and new dynasty begins
rules in 195 BC; one of Liu Bang's concubines, she killed her son and kept the throne by naming infants as emperor when they were to young to rule (so she ruled for them); when she dies her whole family gets killed
(develops when a lot of fighting is going on); system of government where a lord is granted land in exchange for military portection and sevices
mutual respect (in relationships); ruler to ruler; father to son; husband to wife; elder to younger; friend to friend (respect must be shown on both sides)
only the emperor and his family got to live here (huge palaces, government offices, 8000 rooms, parks, ponds, etc)
a desert in central Asia
what the time period Tang Dynasty was considered because of the huge exports of porcelin, mechanical clock, and block printing
took 9 million people to build it; connects the Yangtze and Wang He river
Qin Shi built it; not completed during his rule (1500 miles) watch towers every 30ft; also known as the longest cemetery in the world
(202 BC - 220 AD) dynasty started by Lui Bang; a great and long-lasting rule, it discarded the harsh policies of the Qin dynasty and adopted Confucian principles; Han rulers chose officials who passed the civil service exams rather than birth; it was a time of prosperity
started legalism; he though that man was naturally evil
most people live here (east); similar to our climate (4 seasons) good for crops and trading
mountain range that divides china from india
first legendary dynasty; historians not sure if it even existed
Huang He River
"river of sorrows" floods at least once a year (floods are deadly); located in the north east
started the Yuan Dynasty; was a mongol; promotes trade because interested in foreiners; extends grand canal; builds highways; built postal service; allows confucionism; allows chinese to participate in government (but not in high postions - those were for mongols); doesn't let chinese in military (scared they will rebel); keeps the mongols seperated from the chinese; loses when trying to defeat japan
started Taoism; believed less government was good
philosphy started by Hanfezi; believed that man was bad so they need very strict government and bad punisments; had many rules
a great poet of the Tang Dynasty; Wu Zhao takes critism from him
yellow, brown soil/silt
new capital of the Sui Dynasty; built by Yang Di
originally a peasant; rose to greatness (started the Han Dynasty) eases taxes and legalist policy, centralizes government, revises confucionism; people liked him
north east; rich in natural resources (coal, etc); many wars faught there
Mandante of Heaven
the right to rule (from the gods)
an Italian explorer who lived during the Yuan Dynasty; worked for china for 17 years then went to jail and told stories about china
(1368 - 1644 BC) during this dynasty, china was back on the path of freatness; they mastered the blue-white china plates; in 1433, they isolate themselves for 200 years after the expidtions, which ends up hurting them (they don't advance in technology)
Ming Hong Wu
starts the ming dynasty; he was the son of a peasant; he reforms agriculture, increases rice production, irrigation, cash crops (cotton and sugar), confucionism, reintroduces the civil service exam; then he turns crazy and kills a lot of people who he thinks is going against the government
where the mongols are from; can be cold; some deserts are found there
a market in which there is no competition; one company controls the market
these are used to communicate with ancestors; they are similar to tortoise shells
Period of Disunity
(220 - 589 AD) barbarians take over - a lot of fighting; buddhism spreads; rice replaces wheat (easy to grow); china becomes vegetable and rice people
a substance that flows in the body; if too much builds up, causes sickness; acupuncture helps release it if too much builds up in one area of the body
Qin Shi Huang Di
he conquers all of the warring kindoms and declares himself the first emperor (221 - 206 BC); he was mean and a legalist (ruled with an iron fist) he standarizes measures and currency which makes it a lot easier to trade; makes everyone speak the same language and writing; transportaion system; abolishes feudalism; burned all confucious' books; sent his son to build the great wall; standardizes law; had 60 palaces connected underground
an instrument used to measure earthquakes
(1650 BC - 1027 BC) one of the first civilizations; occured during the bronze age
a very unsafe 4,000 mile trade route from east china to europe; had deserts, mountains, and bandits; one trip could make you very rich; many did not return
king -> nobles -> merchants and artisans -> peasants
(960 - 1279 AD); this dynasty was started by Tai Zu; by 1000, a million people were living there; started feet binding; had a magnetic compass; had a navy; traded with india and persia (brought pepper and cotton); first to have paper money, explosive gun powder; *landscape black and white paintings
(589 - 618 AD) emperor Wen Di unites south and north china; divides public land for all families
he started the Song Dynasty
dynasty often referred to as China's Golden age that reigned during 618 - 907 AD; China expands from Vietnam to Manchuria
(627 - 647) personal name was Li Shimin; great general, war hero; expands China's borders; encourages trade; allows buddhism to spread; let christians and muslims practice; let people who passed the civil exam work for government
"the way" started by Lao Tsu; believed man was good and should live amungst nature; less government was good
Terra Cota Army
clay soliders; chinese believed in afterlife so Qin Shi had these placed in his tomb to protect him in the afterlife
plateau; not always part of China; Dalai Lama used to live there and then escaped to India
The North-West region of China
ruled for a child emporer then takes over (9 AD - 23 AD) sets up graineries for the poor, new money, because of land reforms people didn't like him; 11AD = bad flood (he was blamed); he was assasinated
started the Sui Dynasty; divides all public land for all families; dies in 604
the only woman to ever declare herself empress, she was a member of the Tang Dynasty; takes over when Li Shimin dies; she used trickery to get power, cuts taxes, raises salaries of government officials, encourages trade and buddhism, takes korea as a tributary state, reforms the civil service exams, builds more school for more job opprotunities, takes critism from Li Bo and improves
Lui Bang's great grandson (141 - 87); expands china; brings confucionsim back, had civil service exams, taxed trade products
most southern river; really good delta (grows tons of rice)
north west region; the people mostly look russian/slavic; some oil found there
strong, good (male side of Yin Yang); black dot represents a little female
2nd emperor of the Sui Dynasty; builds the new capital Loyang; also builds the Grand Canal which connects Yangtze and Wang He rivers; he was assasinated in 618
3rd longest river in the world (3915 miles long)
bad, evil (female side of Yin Yang); white dot represents a little male
represents the forces of nature (yin and yang balance each other)
next great emperor, spreads chinese culture, sent out expensive expiditions to africa, india, southeast asia to show off their inventions; he stops the expidtions because they were very costly, he then isolates china from the rest of the world