Psych Set 5

119 terms by rachel1408 

Ready to study?
Start with Flashcards

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

Memory

system that encodes, stores, and retrieves information

Encoding

task of memory, modifying information to fit preferred format, we select stimuli, we ID the sensory input, we label it, and we elaborate on it

Storage

task of memory, involves the retention of encoded material overtime

Retrieval

task of memory, involving the location and recovery of information from memory

Sensory Memory

1st stage of memory, holds brief sensory impressions of stimuli, sounds, smell, texture, function is to maintain incoming info long enough to be screened for possible entry into working memory

Working Memory

(short term) 2nd stage of memory, preserves recently perceived events or experiences for less than a minute, last about 20 seconds(remembering #s) has the smallest capacity

Long-Term Memory

3rd stage of memory, receives information from working memory, has the longest duration, words, concepts are encoded by their meanings

Structures of Working Memory

1. Central Executive (directs attention) 2. Phonological Loop (stores sound) 3. Sketchpad (store/manipulates mental images)

Chunking

organizes pieces of info into a smaller number of meaningful units (frees up space in working memory)

Maintenance Rehearsal

information is repeated or reviewed to keep from fading, (involves not active elaboration)

Elaborative Rehearsal

information is not just rehearsed, but connected to knowledge already stored

Acoustic Encoding

the conversion of information to sounds patterns in working memory

Levels-of-Processing Theory

info that is more thoroughly connected to meaningful items in long term memory

Procedural Memory

part of LTM, stores the things we know how to do

Declarative Memory

part of LTM, stores explicit info (facts and events), 2 parts

Episodic Memory

division of Declarative Memory, stores personal experiences, also stores temporal/context coding(when/where), acts ad autobiographical memory

Semantic Memory

division of Declarative Memory, stores general knowledge, meanings of words and concepts

Engram

(memory trace) physical change in the brain associated with a memory

Anterograde Amnesia

inability to form memories for new information

Consolidation

process by which short term memories are changed to long term over time

Retrograde Amnesia

inability to remember information previously stored in memory

Implicit Memory

memory that was not deliberately learned or which you had no awareness

Explicit Memory

memory that has been processed w/ attention, can be consciously recalled

Priming

technique used for cuing implicit memories, helps stimulate memories your not aware of

Recall

retrieval method, must produce previously presented information (essay question)

Recognition

retrieval method, must identify or recognize previously learned info

Mood-Congruent Memory

memory process that selectively retrieves memories that match one's mood

Encoding Specificity Principle

process by which memory is encoded and stored w/ specific cues related to the context in which it was learned (recognizing something out of their usual element, stimulus that made you think of old memories)

Transience

impermanence of long term memory, based on the idea that LTM gradually fade over time

Absent-Mindedness

forgetting caused by lapses in attention

Blocking

forgetting when an item in memory cannot be accessed, caused by interference

Proactive Interference

previously stored information prevents learning/remembering new information

Retroactive Interference

newly learned information prevents retrieval of previously learned material

Serial Position Effect

form of interference related to the sequence in which information is presented. items in the middle usually forgotten

Misattribution

memory fault that occurs when memories are retrieved but are associated with the wrong time, place or person

Expectancy Bias

tendency to distort recalled events to make them fit one's expectations

Mnemonics

technique for improving memory, making connections b/w new material and information already in LTM

Method of Loci

technique that involves associating items on a list with a sequence of familiar physical locations

Concepts

mental representations of categories of items or ideas, based on experience

Thinking

cognitive process involved in forming a new mental representation by manipulating available information

Natural Concepts

representation of objects and events drawn from our direct experience

Artificial Concepts

defined by rules, word definitions, and mathematical formulas

prototype

most representative example of a conceptual category

Algorithms

problem-solving procedures or formulas that always come out correctly

Schema

knowledge cluster or general conceptual frame work that provides expectations about topics, events, objects, people, and situations in one's life

Script

knowledge about sequences of events and actions expected to occur in particular settings

Heuristics

"rules of thumb" used as short cuts to solve problems

mental set

tendency to respond to a new problem in the manner used for a previous problem- doesn't always work

Functional Fixedness

when the function of a familiar object becomes so set, or fixed, you cannot see a new function for it

Hindsight Bias

tendency to "second guess" or believe that one could have predicted the event in advance, form of distorted thinking appears after an event has occurred

Anchoring Bias

faulty heuristic caused by basing an estimate on a completely unrelated quantity (Tversky & Kahneman)

Representative Bias

strategy based on the presumption that once people or events are categorized, they share all the features of other members

Availability Bias

strategy that estimates probabilities based on information that can be recalled from personal experience

Creativity

mental process that produces novel responses that combine to the solution of problems

Aptitudes

innate potentialities (contrasted w/ abilities acquired by learning) Howard Gardner

Memory

system that encodes, stores, and retrieves information

Encoding

task of memory, modifying information to fit preferred format, we select stimuli, we ID the sensory input, we label it, and we elaborate on it

Storage

task of memory, involves the retention of encoded material overtime

Retrieval

task of memory, involving the location and recovery of information from memory

Sensory Memory

1st stage of memory, holds brief sensory impressions of stimuli, sounds, smell, texture, function is to maintain incoming info long enough to be screened for possible entry into working memory

Working Memory

(short term) 2nd stage of memory, preserves recently perceived events or experiences for less than a minute, last about 20 seconds(remembering #s) has the smallest capacity

Long-Term Memory

3rd stage of memory, receives information from working memory, has the longest duration, words, concepts are encoded by their meanings

Structures of Working Memory

1. Central Executive (directs attention) 2. Phonological Loop (stores sound) 3. Sketchpad (store/manipulates mental images)

Chunking

organizes pieces of info into a smaller number of meaningful units (frees up space in working memory)

Maintenance Rehearsal

information is repeated or reviewed to keep from fading, (involves not active elaboration)

Elaborative Rehearsal

information is not just rehearsed, but connected to knowledge already stored

Acoustic Encoding

the conversion of information to sounds patterns in working memory

Levels-of-Processing Theory

info that is more thoroughly connected to meaningful items in long term memory

Procedural Memory

part of LTM, stores the things we know how to do

Declarative Memory

part of LTM, stores explicit info (facts and events), 2 parts

Episodic Memory

division of Declarative Memory, stores personal experiences, also stores temporal/context coding(when/where), acts ad autobiographical memory

Semantic Memory

division of Declarative Memory, stores general knowledge, meanings of words and concepts

Engram

(memory trace) physical change in the brain associated with a memory

Anterograde Amnesia

inability to form memories for new information

Consolidation

process by which short term memories are changed to long term over time

Retrograde Amnesia

inability to remember information previously stored in memory

Implicit Memory

memory that was not deliberately learned or which you had no awareness

Explicit Memory

memory that has been processed w/ attention, can be consciously recalled

Priming

technique used for cuing implicit memories, helps stimulate memories your not aware of

Recall

retrieval method, must produce previously presented information (essay question)

Recognition

retrieval method, must identify or recognize previously learned info

Mood-Congruent Memory

memory process that selectively retrieves memories that match one's mood

Encoding Specificity Principle

process by which memory is encoded and stored w/ specific cues related to the context in which it was learned (recognizing something out of their usual element, stimulus that made you think of old memories)

achievement test

measures a person's mastery and knowledge of various subjects

aptitude test

assesses specific types of mental abilities

construct validity

the extent to which evidence shows that a test measures a particular hypothetical construct

content validity

the degree to which the content of a test is representative of the domain it is supposed to cover

convergent thinking

narrowing down a list of alternatives to converge on a single correct answer

correlation coefficient

a numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables

creativity

the generation of ideas that are original, novel, and useful

criterion-related validity

estimated by correlating subjects' scores on a test with their scores on an independent criterion (another measure) of the trait assessed by the test

deviation IQ scores

locate subjects precisely within the normal distribution, using the standard deviation as the unit of measurement

divergent thinking

trying to expand the range of alternatives by generating many possible solutions

emotional intelligence

the ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, and regulate emotion

factor analysis

correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify closely related clusters of variables

heritability ratio

an estimate of the proportion of trait variability in a population that is determined by variations in genetic inheritance

intelligence

aggregate or global capacity to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with the environment

intelligence quotient (IQ)

a child's mental age divided by chronological age, multiplied by 100

intelligence test

measures general mental ability

mental age

displaying the mental performance typical of a child of that chronological (actual) age

mental retardation (intellectual disability)

subnormal general mental ability accompanied by deficiencies in adaptive skills, originating before age 18

multiple intelligences

Howard Gardner's theory that people process information differently and intelligence is composed of many different factors, including at least eight intelligences: logical-mathematical, verbal-linguistic, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic

normal distribution

a symmetric, bell-shaped curve that represents the pattern in which many characteristics are dispersed in the population

norms

standards used to compare scores of test takers

percentile score

indicates the percentage of people who score at or below the score one has obtained

personality test

measures various aspects of personality, including motives, interests, values, and attitudes

psychological test

a standardized measure of a sample of a person's behavior; used to measure individual differences among people in their abilities, aptitude, interests, and aspects of personality

psychometricians

measurement psychologists; focus on methods for acquiring and analyzing psychological data. Measure mental traits, abilities, and processes

reaction range

genetically determined limits on IQ (or other traits)

reliability

the measurement consistency of a test or other kinds of measurement technique

Rorschach Inkblot Test

a sequence of ten inkblots, each of which the participant is asked to observe and then characterize. Different aspects of the participant's descriptions, such as form and movement of objects, are scored to yield an evaluation of the participant's personality

standardization

A two-part test development procedure. First, test norms are established from the test results of a large representative sample. Then, procedures are created to assure that the test is both administered and scored uniformly for all test takers.

Stanford-Binet intelligence test

an individual IQ test with IQ calculated using a ratio formula: mental age divided by chronological age multiplied by 100. Now, IQ is based on deviation from mean. Five ability areas are assessed both verbally and nonverbally

stereotype threat

the concept that anxiety influences achievement of members of a group concerned that their performance on a test will confirm a negative stereotype.

test norms

provide information about where a score on a test ranks in relation to other scores on that test

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

a series of pictures of people in ambiguous relationships with other people. The participant generates a story to accompany the picture, including both what led up to the scene in the picture and what will occur next. The participant's responses are used to make judgments about his personality.

triarchic theory of intelligence

three separate and testable intelligences: analytical (facts), practical ("street smarts") and creative (seeing multiple solutions)

validity

the ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure

Wechsler intelligence tests

three age-based individual IQ tests: WPPSI (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence), WISC (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children) and WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale); two scores - verbal and performance

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set