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History and Biography

What are 2 components C. rigt Mills identified as being fundamental to understanding the sociological imagination?

Auguste Comte

Which social scientist first proposed applying the scientific method to the social world, a practice known as positivism?

The survival of the fittest

Herbert Spencer believed that scoieties evolved from lower to higher forms because as generations pass, the most capabl and intelligent members of society prosper while the less capable die out. What term did Spencer use to describe this process?

a single proesant man living in the city

Based on Emile Durkheim's research on suicide, which of the following individuals would be the greatest suicide risk?

Marx believed economics was the central force of social change and Weber claimed it was religion

How did Karl Marx and Max Weber differ in their theoretical assumptions?

symbolic interactionism

People may change their opinions about an issue such a divorce based on a restructuring of that image, the issues involved, and what they mean. This is an exampleof which sociological perspective?

Functional analysis

Which sociological perspective stresses that society is a whole unti, made up of interrelated parts that work together harmoniously?

Conflict theory

Which sociological perspective views society as being compose of groups that engage in fierce competition fo scarce resources?

population; sample

Jim and im are doing a survery on the opinion students have regarding race relations at the local college. There are 20,000 students at this college but they plan to only survery 1,000 of them. In view of this, the 20,000 students would be considered as the ______ and the 1,000 students would be the ______.

Secondary Analysis

Anthony is conducting research on organized crime in Kansas City. Rather than interviewing criminals or going undercover, he is examining data obtained from the Police Department. In this case, what is the reseach method Anthony is using?

Human Behavior

Sociology is the study of:

The sociologicl imagination

The ability to see the societal patterns that influence individual and group life is referred to as:

C. Wright Mills

Which of the following social thinkers is associated with the concept of "the sociological imagination"?

Comprehend the whole of human society and its influence on the lives of human beings

According to Mills, the specific task of sociology is to:

careful and systematic observations

The empirical approach to knowledge requires that conclusions be based on:

All of the above

Sociologists are likely to study:
A.) persistant problems embedded in society
B.) How families adapt to changing social conditions
C.) Issues that affect daily life
D.) All of the above

the black teens felt embarrassed and stigmtized by being pregnant

In "Doing Sociological Research: Debunking the Myths of Black Teenage Motherhood," summary of Elaine Bell Kaplan's research concluded that:

Debunking

Peter Berger called the process whereby sociologists question actions and ideas that are usually taken for granted

All of the above

Footbinding in China:
A.) was believed to create more arousal in men
B.) created small feet that were considered elite
C.) made women more dependent on men
D.) all of the above

all of the above

Diversity is a broad concept that includes studying:
A.) group differences in society's opportunities
B.) the process of social change
C.) the formation of group and individual identity
D.) all of the above

faith in the ability of human reason to solve society's problems

The Enlightenment had an enormous influence on he devvelopment of modern sociology because it was characterized by:

scientific observation and description

Positivism refers to:

interested in the newly emerging culture in America

Alexis de Tocqueville and Harriet Martineau were alike in that both were

functionalism

Durkheim's work is the basis for:

nonmaterial culture

Which term is used to describe a group's way of thinking, gestures, language, values, and social norms?

Shared and learned ways of being and doing become taken-for granted assumptions

When sociologists use the phrase the culture within us, what do they mean?

culture shock

Mark is a foreign exchange student living with a Chinese family. The first night he was with them his hosts served a delicious entree of meat and vegetables. Although tasty, Mark could not identify the meat. When his host told him it was roast dog, Mark became upset and decided to be a vegetarian for the course of his stay. In view of this, which sociological concept did Mark just experience?

ethnocentrism

What is the tendency to use our own group's ways of doing things as the yardstick for judging the behavior, values, and beliefs of others?

cultural relativism

Jane is exploring how the various aspects of the Nepali culture fit together including their religion, family values, and customs without judging those elements as being inferior or superior to modern Western ways. In doing so, what is she practicing?

Edward Sapir; Benjamin Whorf

Who were the two anthropologists who concluded that language has embedded within it ways of looking at the world?

norms

What are the expectations or rules of behavior that develop out of a group's values?

subculture

In December, many Jewish families celebrate Chanukah, the "festival of light," during which special foods are served and families engage in ritual activity unique to their religious faith. In this context, members of the Jewish faith represent a ________.

individualism

Americans cherish the ideal that anyone can rise from the bottom of society to its very top. What value
identified by Robin Williams is illustrated by this belief?

all of the above

Culture includes:
a. ways of thinking
b. patterns of behavior
c. the objects people make and use
d. all of these choices

d. the American value of individualism

Which of the following is an example of non-material culture?
a. a work of art
b. a fashion magazine
c. music CDs
d. the American value of individualism

all of these choices

Which of the following statements about culture is true?
a. culture is shared
b. culture is learned
c. culture is taken for granted
d. all of these choices

b. of the significance people bestow on them as cultural symbols

People stand during the National Anthem and are emotionally moved by a cross or Star of David because

build group solidarity.

An ethnocentric perspective tends to

Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

The theory that language determines other aspects of culture since language shapes the way that people perceive the world is called the _____.

folkways and mores

Two classic cultural concepts associated with the work of William Graham Sumner are:

they have learned and internalized the common expectations for behavior.

People generally follow norms for behavior because

all of the above

The Kwakiutl potlatch involves
a. the accumulation of many goods.
b. giving away possessions to one's followers and rivals.
c. sometimes intentionally destroying goods.
d. all of the above

Asia and Latin America

Today most new immigrants to the United States come from _____.

the culture of the most powerful group

In every society, the dominant culture is

all of these

The widely acknowledged "American" culture is strongly influenced by:
a. television
b. the fashion industry
c. the Anglo-European traditions
d. all of these

today tattoos are a symbol of independence and freedom from social constraints.

Katherine Irwin's study of tattooing among the middle class found that

television

For most Americans, leisure time is dominated by:

none of these

Which of the following groups are more likely to live in "constant television households"?
a. Black children
b. White children
c. Hispanic children
d. none of these choices

shaped by commercial interests.

From a sociological perspective, the news presented in the media is

heredity

In the "nature vs. nurture" controversy, which of the following terms least applies to nurture?

The training had little effect, and Genie lived a primitive lifestyle

What was the result of intensified remedial training given to Genie, a 13-year-old feral child discovered in California in 1970?

the self

What term describes the unique image we hold of who we are?

Our self concept develops from interaction with others

According to Charles Horton Cooley, how do we develop our self concept?

through play and social interaction

According to George Herbert Mead, how does a child learn to take the role of others?

"looking-glass self"

Linda is a new sociology professor at the local college. During her first lecture, she noticed that some students were yawning. Based on her interpretation of the students yawning, Linda has decided she is a boring teacher. This is an example of the process referred to as ________.

the play stage

Frank is five years of age. He loves to dress up like the Lone Ranger and pretend to help people in need.
According to Mead's theory, what stage best describes Frank's behavior?

preoperational

Katie is 6 years of age. She can count to 100 but is not sure what the numbers actually mean. According to Jean Piaget, in what stage is Katie functioning?

the super ego

In Sigmund Freud's theory on psychoanalysis, what is the balancing force between id and the demands of society called?

academic journals

Which of the following media least qualifies as being a form of mass media?
A) television
B) box-office Hollywood films
C) academic journals
D) video games

b. they shed light on human development without social contact.

Studies of feral children are important within sociology because

Roles

)____ are the expected behaviors associated with a given status in society.

socialization

The process through which people learn the expectations of society is called _____.

one's height and hair color

Which of the following is NOT acquired through the process of socialization?
a. customs, habits, practices of one's society
b. one's identity
c. an individual's personality
d. one's height and hair color

b. language acquisition and the psychological effects of extreme confinement

Genie was studied intensively by scientists primarily interested in

all of the above

Which of the following affects how one is socialized?
a. one's race and gender
b. social class
c. one's physical attractiveness
d. all of the above

tabula rasa

Some sociologist believe that humans are born with a "blank slate," i.e. without values or social attitudes. This referred to as _____.

nature

In regards to the Nature vs. Nurture debate, sociologists would tend to emphasize _____.

all of the above

Socialization is lifelong process that affects how we think of ourselves and others by
a. establishing one's self-concept.
b. creating the capacity for understanding the perspective of another.
c. creating the tendency to act in socially acceptable ways.
d. all of the above

c. a relationship exists between watching televised violence and engaging in aggressive behavior

Research on the impact of the media as an agent of socialization reveals that

b. studying socialization in schools is an excellent way to see the influence of gender, class, and race in shaping socialization.

Research on education in the U.S. indicates that

all of the above

Which of the following statements is TRUE?
a. the superego incorporates society's collective expectations
b. the ego plays a balancing act between the id and the superego
c. the id is in permanent conflict with the superego
d. all of the above are true

We watch others and learn the basic rules of identity.

Which of the following is NOT part of the process of the looking glass self?
a. We watch others and learn the basic rules of identity.
b. We consider how we think we appear to others.
c. We consider how we think others judge us.
d. How we think others perceive us affect how we feel.

taking the role of the other

George Herbert Mead is most associated with the concept(s) of _____.

imitation, play, game

Mead's stages, in their correct order, are:

It must be a rule written into law.

For a deviant act to be classified as a crime, what quality must pertain to it?

norms

Which concept of culture is credited with making social life possible and behavior predictable?

Anthony is the recipient of a positive sanction for conforming to the norms of society.

Anthony has been selected as the Outstanding Young Law Enforcement Officer by the Pennsylvania Jaycees. Sociologically, what does this award represent?

the XYY theory

Which of the following theories would a sociobiologist most likely suggest as being the cause of deviant
behavior?
A) the XYY theory
B) differential association theory
C) control theory
D) social bond theory

Sociological explanations focus on factors outside the individual, and psychological explanations address conditions within the individual.

What is the major difference between sociological and psychological theories used to explain deviance?

their social class

Which personal characteristic of an individual would a sociologist be most likely to address when trying to determine the cause of an individual's deviant behavior?

group association

Based on his famous theory explaining the cause of deviance and crime, what would Edwin Sutherland
consider as the underlying cause of deviance?

When we have strong attachments, commitments, and involvement with society

Based on control theory, when are inner controls more effective?

One deviant act leads to another which increases social solidarity.

Emile Durkheim stated several reasons why deviance was actually functional for society. Which of the
following was not one of them?
A) One deviant act leads to another which increases social solidarity.
B) Deviance clarifies moral boundaries and affirms norms.
C) Deviance promotes social unity.
D) Deviance promotes social change.

a. stresses social context, not individual behavior

The sociological definition of social deviance

body piercing

Which of the following is an example of informal deviance?
a. a traffic ticket
b. underage drinking
c. body piercing
d. polygamy

a. in order to recognize normal behavior

According to Durkheim, why do societies actually need deviance?

all of the above

Deviant behavior
a. has no similarity to "normal" behavior.
b. may be encouraged by subcultures or other identity groups.
c. is weird, pathological behavior.
d. all of the above

individual factors

Psychological explanations of deviance emphasize _____ as the underlying cause of deviant behavior.

all of the above

From a sociological perspective, deviance
a. originates in society, not in individuals.
b. is an adaptation to the social structures in which people live.
c. requires society to change in order to be resolved the behavior.
d. all of the above

found in social factors

Durkheim believed that the causes of suicide were

the tension between desired cultural goals and the means of achieving them

Merton's structural strain theory traces the origins of deviance to _____.

functionalist

Travis Hirschi's social control theory is a type of _____ theory

conflict

According to the _____ perspective, deviance results from inequality in society.

symbolic interaction theory

Which of the following theories are microsociological theories?
a. functionalism
b. conflict theory
c. symbolic interaction theory
d. none of these choices

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