big desert (size of Colorado) in central China
Huang He River
"river of sorrows" floods; located in the north east, very long. Also called the "yellow river".
3rd longest river in the world (3915 miles long), used for trade and hydroelectric power.
most southern river, many people live on banks because of excellent delta and farmland; used for farming and trade.
yellowish brown soil from the plains; acts as natural fertilizer
in the northeast; rich in natural resources (coal, etc); many wars faught there
used to communicate with ancestors by writing questions on them and examining cracks; they are similar to tortoise shells
(1650 BC - 1027 BC) one of the first civilizations; occured during the bronze age.
Mandate of Heaven
the right to rule from the gods
overthrew the Shang dynasty, during the iron age. It was a period of warring states and the "school of 100 thoughts"
founder of Legalism who believed that man was bad by nature and needed strict laws and punishments to be kept in line
philosophy started by Hanfezi; believed that man was bad so they needed very strict government and bad punishments; had many rules
founder of Taoism who believed that nature was the highest good
"the way" started by Lao Tsu; believed man was good and should live amongst nature; less government was better. It used the concept of Yin Yang (yin=dark, weak, negative, female; yang=bright, positive, male; need both for balance)
551-479 B.C. Chinese philosopher devoted his life to teaching; developed a code of behavior based on old traditions, good behavior, and truth. Believed filial piety was the key to success in keeping society in order
a record of the words and acts of the central Chinese thinker and philosopher Confucius and his disciples
mutual respect (in relationships); ruler to ruler; father to son; husband to wife; elder to younger; friend to friend (respect must be shown on both sides)
(221 - 206 BC) a legalist dynasty created by Qin Shi; all the city states were combined; the Great Wall was built during this dynasty, but not completed
Shi Huang Di
harsh ruler who united China for the first time and used legalism in ruling
Shang, Zhou, Qin, Han, Tang, Song, Yuan, Ming
In which order did the dynasties rule China?
(202 BC - 220 AD) dynasty started by Lui Bang; a great and long-lasting rule, it discarded the harsh policies of the Qin dynasty and adopted Confucian principles; Han rulers chose officials who passed the civil service exams rather than birth; it was a time of prosperity
changed name to Tang Taizang; great ruler of the Tang Dynasty who expands civil service exams, allows Buddhism to spread, welcomes other religions, amd encourages trade.
civil service exam
a 3 day test to work for the government; people train for years because it was very hard
a very unsafe 4,000 mile trade route from east china to europe; had deserts, mountains, and bandits; one trip could make you very rich; many did not return
ruled during the Han dynasty; Lui Bang's great grandson who established a monopoly on iron and salt
interrupted Han rule for around 15 years to rule China; tried helping the poor by establishing granaries and land reform.
scholar who wrote the seven feminine virtues
a great poet of the Tang Dynasty; Wu Zhao takes critism from him
rules in 195 BC; one of Liu Bang's concubines, she killed her son and kept the throne by naming infants as emperor when they were to young to rule (so she ruled for them); when she dies her whole family gets killed
the only woman to ever declare herself empress, she was a member of the Tang Dynasty; takes over when Li Shimin dies; she used trickery to get power, cuts taxes, raises salaries of government officials, encourages trade and buddhism, takes korea as a tributary state, reforms the civil service exams, builds more school for more job opprotunities, takes critism from Li Bo and improves
started the Yuan Dynasty; was a mongol; promotes trade because interested in foreigners; extends grand canal; builds highways; built postal service; allows Confucianism; allows Chinese to participate in government (but not in high postions - those were for mongols); doesn't let Chinese in military (scared they will rebel); keeps the mongols separated from the chinese; loses when trying to defeat Japan
dynasty often referred to as China's Golden age that reigned during 618 - 907 AD; China expands from Vietnam to Manchuria
(960 - 1279 AD); this dynasty was started by Tai Zu; by 1000, a million people were living there; started feet binding; had a magnetic compass; had a navy; traded with india and persia (brought pepper and cotton); first to have paper money, explosive gun powder; landscape black and white paintings. Also a golden age
controlled by the Khans (Mongols); Chinese are allowed to have some say, Marco Polo visits
European who goes to China to work for Kublai Khan and brings stuff back to Europe
(1368 - 1644 BC) during this dynasty, China was back on the path of greatness; they mastered the blue-white china plates; in 1433, they isolate themselves for 200 years after the expeditions, which ends up hurting them (they don't advance in technology)
Muslim eunich that is sent by Yonglo on many expeditions during the Ming Dynasty
imperial palace in Beijing; only the emperor and his family got to live here (huge palaces, government offices, 8000 rooms, parks, ponds, etc)