James G. Blaine
pushed his "Big Sister" policy and presided over the first Pan-American Conference, US Senator from Maine
Conference called by James Blaine that created an organization of cooperation between the US and Latin American countries, 1889
publisher of "New York World" who used yellow journalism, was very critical of the Spanish, created the Pulitzer Prize
a United States Navy officer, geostrategist, and educator. His ideas on the importance of sea power influenced navies around the world, and helped prompt naval buildups before World War I. Several ships were named USS Mahan, including the lead vessel of a class of destroyers. His research into naval History led to his most important work, The Influence of Seapower Upon History,1660-1783, published in 1890
One of the causes of the Spanish-American War (1898) - this was when newspaper publishers like Hearst and Pulitzer sensationalized news events (like the sinking of the Maine) to anger American public towards Spain.
William Randolph Hearst
A leading newspaperman of his times, he ran The New York Journal and helped create and propagate "yellow journalism."
Hawaiian Revolution of 1893
U.S. settlers aided the overthrow of Queen Liliuokalani because she drafted a new constitution that would restore the monarchy's authority. President Cleveland opposed annexation. then outbreak of war and fight for Phillipines gave Congress and Pres. Mckinley pretext to complete annexation in july 1908.
Cuban revolt of 1895
In 1895, adopted strategy of sabotaging and laying waste Cuban plantations in order either to force Spain's withdrawal or involve U.S. in their revolution. Spain sent autocratic General Valeriano Weyler and over 100,000 troops to suppress revolt.
A Spanish general who was sent to crush the Cuban revolt. By using brutal methods, he caused uproar in the United States, who called for immediate action to help the Cubans.
Battle of Manila Bay
First Battle of the Spanish-American War in the Philippines; decisive US victory under Commodore George Dewey (US steel ships vs. Spanish wooden ships).
26th President of the United States, hero of the Spanish-American War; Panama Canal was built during his administration; said 'Speak softly but carry a big stick' (1858-1919)
The Maine was a US ship that was on patrol in Havana Harbor, Cuba. It was sunk by what is believed to be a Spanish Mine and America immediately geared up for war against Spain.
members of the First U.S. Volunteer Cavalry, organized by Theodore Roosevelt during the Spanish-American War
San Juan Hill
Site of the most famous battle of the Spanish-American war, where Theodore Roosevelt successfully leads the Rough Riders in a charge against the Spanish trenches, 1898
Treaty of Paris 1899
Approved by the Senate on February 6, 1898, it ended the Spanish-American War. The U.S. gained Guam, Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines
objected to the annexation of the Philippines and the building of an American empire. Idealism, self-interest, racism, constitutionalism, and other reasons motivated them, but they failed to make their case; the Philippines were annexed in 1900
White Man's Burden
The supposed or presumed responsibility of white people to govern and impart their culture to nonwhite people, often advanced as a justification for European colonialism. (also a poem by Rudyard Kipling)
William Jennings Bryan
Democratic candidate ran for pres in 1896 (and again in 1900). goal of free silver won him the support of the Populist Party. Though a gifted orator, he lost the election to Republican William McKinley. "Cross of Gold speech"
Elected 27th President in 1909-1913, approached reform cautiously, wanted to control things through economic means , Dollar Diplomacy, lost to Woodrow Wilson in the 1912 election.
This amendment to the new Cuban constitution authorized U.S. intervention in Cuba to protect its interests. Cuba pledged not to make treaties with other countries that might compromise its independence, and it granted naval bases to the United States, most notable being Guantanamo Bay.
Act of Congress in 1898 that stated that when the United States had rid Cuba of Spanish rule, Cuba would be granted its freedom. It prevented Cuba from turning hostile towards the U.S.
Open Door Policy
A policy of the United States that stated China should be open to all nations that which to trade with them. This policy did not include the consent of the Chinese, and was another form of imperialism.
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops
Big Stick Policy
Roosevelt's philosophy - In international affairs, ask first but bring along a big army to help convince them. Threaten to use force, act as international policemen; used by T.R. to improve world peace
(TR) , Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force, first put into effect in Dominican Republic
San Francisco School Board Incident
1906 - Racist schools segregated Chinese, Korean and Japanese students because of anti-oriental sentiment in California.
Roosevelt met with Russian and Japanese delegates at New Hampshire in 1905 to negotiate the outcome of the Russo-Japanese war. Neither side was entirely happy with the negotiations, as Japan received no indemnity for its losses and only the southern half of Sakhalin. However, TR received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1906 for achieving this agreement.
Russia and Japan were fighting over Korea & Manchuria. Began in 1904, but neither side could gain a clear advantage and win. Both sent representatives to Portsmouth, NH where Roosevelt mediated Treaty of New Hampshire in 1905. Roosevelt won the nobel peace prize for his efforts, the 1st pres to do so.
(TR) , 1907 Agreement when Japan agreed to curb the number of workers coming to the US and in exchange Roosevelt agreed to allow the wives of the Japenese men already living in the US to join them
Great White Fleet
1907-1909 - Roosevelt sent the Navy on a world tour to show the world the U.S. naval power. Also to pressure Japan into the "Gentlemen's Agreement.", sent 16 gleaming white battleships